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Ancient GreekEdit

 
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Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

Usually derived from the Ionic word ἀρή (arḗ, bane, ruin)[1], which could be related to Sanskrit इरस्या (irasyā, malevolence), suggesting a Proto-Indo-European origin.[2]

However, Morris Silver and Pierre Chantraine propose a derivation from ἄρος (áros, use, profit, help) instead.[3]

𐀀𐀩 (a-re), found in Linear B, is thought to be the oldest attested form of the name.[4]

PronunciationEdit

 

The α (a) is usually short in Homer and tragedy, but sometimes long, e.g. Iliad 5.31, Iliad 2..767, Argonautica 3.1187; and Aeschylus and Sophocles regularly use long (ā).

Proper nounEdit

Ἄρης (Árēsm (genitive Ᾰ̓́ρεως); third declension

  1. (Greek mythology) Ares
    • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 5.29–33:
      [] ἀτὰρ γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη
      χειρὸς ἑλοῦσ᾽ ἐπέεσσι προσηύδα θοῦρον Ἄρηα:
      ‘Ἆρες Ἄρες βροτολοιγὲ μιαιφόνε τειχεσιπλῆτα
      οὐκ ἂν δὴ Τρῶας μὲν ἐάσαιμεν καὶ Ἀχαιοὺς
      μάρνασθ᾽, ὁπποτέροισι πατὴρ Ζεὺς κῦδος ὀρέξῃ
      [] atàr glaukôpis Athḗnē
      kheiròs heloûs᾽ epéessi prosēúda thoûron Árēa:
      ‘Âres Áres brotoloigè miaiphóne teikhesiplêta
      ouk àn dḕ Trôas mèn eásaimen kaì Akhaioùs
      márnasth᾽, hoppotéroisi patḕr Zeùs kûdos oréxēi
      {...} And flashing-eyed Athene
      took furious Ares by the hand and spake to him, saying:
      Ares, Ares, thou bane of mortals, thou blood-stained stormer of walls,
      shall we not now leave the Trojans and Achaeans
      to fight, to whichsoever of the two it be that father Zeus shall vouchsafe glory?”
      English translation by A.T. Murray @perseus
    • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 5.455
      Apollo speaks the same phrase: ‘Ἆρες Ἄρες βροτολοιγὲ μιαιφόνε τειχεσιπλῆτα”
  2. Mars (planet)
  3. war, warlike spirit
  4. epithet of Zeus, "avenger"

InflectionEdit

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ares” in Douglas Harper, Online Etymology Dictionary, 2001–2019.
  2. ^ Ἄρης in William Smith et al., editor (1890) A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, London: William Wayte. G. E. Marindin
  3. ^ 1992, Morris Silver, Taking ancient mythology economically, page 162; citing Pierre Chantraine's Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque
  4. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q., editors (1997) Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, London, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers

Further readingEdit

  • Ἄρης in Liddell & Scott (1940) A Greek–English Lexicon, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • Ἄρης in Liddell & Scott (1889) An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • Ἄρης in Autenrieth, Georg (1891) A Homeric Dictionary for Schools and Colleges, New York: Harper and Brothers
  • Ἄρης in Bailly, Anatole (1935) Le Grand Bailly: Dictionnaire grec-français, Paris: Hachette
  • Ἄρης in Cunliffe, Richard J. (1924) A Lexicon of the Homeric Dialect: Expanded Edition, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, published 1963
  • Ἄρης in the Diccionario Griego–Español en línea (2006–2019)
  • Ἄρης in Slater, William J. (1969) Lexicon to Pindar, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter
  • Woodhouse, S. C. (1910) English–Greek Dictionary: A Vocabulary of the Attic Language[1], London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited, page 1,002
  • Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN