Ancient Greek edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Beekes points out the absence of cognates in other Indo-European languages and considers the word to be of Pre-Greek origin.[1]

Some have pointed out the similarity to Gothic 𐌰𐌶𐌲𐍉 (azgō), itself derived from Proto-Indo-European *h₂eHs- (to dry, burn, glow; hearth, ashes), or a combination of this root and *dʰegʷʰ- (to burn).[2] The root *h₂eHs- is known for its enlargements, be they dental or velar, as in Ancient Greek ἄζω (ázō) and ἄσβολος (ásbolos).

According to Gamkrelidze / Ivanov, a Kartvelian borrowing. Compare Proto-Kartvelian *c₁x- (burn, give off heat), whence Georgian სიცხე (sicxe), Mingrelian ჩხე (čxe), Laz ჩხე (çxe) and Svan root შხ- (šx-, burn, set fire). The initial ἐ- (e-) of the Greek form is a prothetic vowel.[3]

Parvulescu relates Ancient Greek χαρά (khará), thus *"[offering] in [sign of] gratitude", replacing ἑστίᾱ (hestíā, fireplace, altar) in Homer.[4]

Pronunciation edit

 

Noun edit

ἐσχάρᾱ (eskhárāf (genitive ἐσχάρᾱς); first declension

  1. hearth
    1. sacrificing hearth
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 14.418–420:
        ὣς ἄρα φωνήσας κέασε ξύλα νηλέϊ χαλκῷ· οἱ δ' ὗν εἰσῆγον μάλα πίονα πενταέτηρον. τὸν μὲν ἔπειτ' ἔστησαν ἐπ' ἐσχάρῃ [...]
        hṑs ára phōnḗsas kéase xúla nēléï khalkôi; hoi d' hûn eisêgon mála píona pentaétēron. tòn mèn épeit' éstēsan ep' eskhárēi [...]
        • 1900 translation by Samuel Butler
          On this he began chopping firewood, while the others brought in a fine fat five year old boar pig, and set it at the altar.
  2. house
  3. (figuratively) platform, stand

Inflection edit

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • French: eschare
  • Latin: eschara

References edit

  1. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 472
  2. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) “*askōn-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 38
  3. ^ Gamkrelidze, Th. V., Ivanov, V. V. (1995) Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans. A Reconstruction and Historical Analysis of a Proto-Language and Proto-Culture. Part I: The Text (Trends in linguistics. Studies and monographs; 80), Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, page 800
  4. ^ Parvulescu, Adrian (2009) "Gk. έσχάρα “(sacrificial) brazier, hearth”" in Indogermanische Forschungen, vol. 114, pp. 132-136. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110209006.132