See also: ˉ [U+02C9 MODIFIER LETTER MACRON], ◌̅ [U+0305 COMBINING OVERLINE], and ◌͞◌

◌̄ U+0304, ̄
COMBINING MACRON
◌̃
[U+0303]
Combining Diacritical Marks ◌̅
[U+0305]

Translingual

edit

Alternative forms

edit
  • (X-bar): (prime), ' (plain apostrophe)

Description

edit

A horizontal line, called a macron, to be placed above other characters.

Pronunciation

edit
  • (X-bar):
    • (English) as bar:
      • /ˈɛn.bɑɹ/

Diacritical mark

edit

◌̄

  1. (phonetics) Used to indicate vowel length.
  2. (IPA) Used to indicate mid tone.
  3. (IPA, rare) Used to indicate retraction of a letter that has a descender – see ◌̠.
  4. (IPA, obsolete) a level tone, or, in contrast to low ◌̱, a high level tone.
  5. (Chomskyan grammar) Used to denote an X-bar.
  6. (romanization) used to create the letter (also ġ), which transliterates i.a. Arabic غ, as well as long vowels such as ā for ى, ī and ū.

Synonyms

edit
[1]: ː
[2]: ˧

See also

edit

English

edit

Diacritical mark

edit

◌̄

  1. (lexicography) Used to mark a vowel letter as having its 'long' sound: ⟨ā⟩ /eɪ/, ⟨ē⟩ /iː/, ⟨ī⟩ /aɪ/, ⟨ō⟩ /oʊ/, ⟨ū⟩ /juː/.
  2. (poetry) Placed over a vowel letter to indicate that the syllable is long. Also used alone to mark stress in a metrical foot or verse: see ⟨ˉ⟩.

Usage notes

edit
  • (lexicography): ◌͞◌ is used for the digraph oo.
  • (poetry): ◌̆ is used for a short vowel/syllable.

Coptic

edit

Diacritical mark

edit

◌̄

  1. The supralinear stroke, placed over a syllabic consonant.

Japanese

edit

Diacritical mark

edit

◌̄

  1. (romanization) A diacritical mark of the Latin script, called マクロン (macron) in Japanese, and found on Ā/ā, Ē/ē, Ī/ī, Ō/ō and Ū/ū.

Usage notes

edit

In a number of romanization systems of Japanese, particularly Hepburn, the macron indicates that a vowel is a long vowel.

Other romanization systems, particularly Kunrei-shiki, use the circumflex (^) for that purpose.

Latin

edit

Diacritical mark

edit

◌̄

  1. A diacritical mark of the Latin script, called signum productionis (macron) in Latin, and found on Ā/ā, Ē/ē, Ī/ī, Ō/ō and Ū/ū. (used in grammars and dictionaries)

Synonyms

edit

See also

edit
  • ◌̆ (signum correptionis)

Latvian

edit

Diacritical mark

edit

◌̄

  1. A diacritical mark of the Latin script, called garumzīme (macron) in Latvian, and found on Ā/ā, Ē/ē, Ī/ī and Ū/ū.

Usage notes

edit
  • Used to mark long vowels: ā = [aː], ē = [ɛː] or [æː], ī = [iː], ū = [uː].
  • For a short while (1908–1919), it was also used with the letter o (ō) to mark long [oː] in words of foreign origin, but this usage has since then been abandoned.
  • Letters with macrons are considered as separate letters with different names, and listed in the alphabet after the same letters without macron (i.e., ā after a, ē after e, ī after i, and ū after u). In actual practice, however, letters with and without macrons are treated as the same letter in alphabetized lists (e.g., in dictionaries), unlike letters with cedillas (ģ, ķ, ļ, ņ) or háčeks (č, š, ž), which are kept separate in alphabetized lists.

Mandarin

edit

Diacritical mark

edit

◌̄

  1. A diacritical mark of the Latin script, called 長音符號长音符号 ({{{trans}}}) in Mandarin, and found on Ā/ā, Ē/ē, Ī/ī, Ō/ō, Ū/ū and Ǖ/ǖ. Indicates the high level first tone.

Old English

edit

Diacritical mark

edit

◌̄

  1. Written on a letter, usually a vowel, in place of an omitted n or m.

Descendants

edit
  • Middle English: ~

Yoruba

edit

Diacritical mark

edit

◌̄

  1. A diacritical mark of the Latin script, called àmì ohùn àárín (middle-tone mark) in Yoruba, and found on Ā/ā, Ē/ē, Ẹ̄/ẹ̄, Ī/ī, Ō/ō, Ọ̄/ọ̄, Ū/ū, / and /. Used to indicate middle-tone, omitted on vowels but marked on syllabic nasals to avoid conflation with nasal vowels

See also

edit
tone marks