See also: ◌̈́

◌̈ U+0308, ̈
COMBINING DIAERESIS
◌̇
[U+0307]
Combining Diacritical Marks ◌̉
[U+0309]
¨ U+00A8, ¨
DIAERESIS
§
[U+00A7]
Latin-1 Supplement ©
[U+00A9]

Translingual

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Diacritical mark

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◌̈

  1. (mathematics, physics) The second time-differential. E.g. x (position), (velocity), (acceleration).
  2. (IPA) A centralized vowel.
  3. (NAPA) A front rounded vowel (e.g. ü ö ɔ̈) or a back unrounded vowel (e.g. ï ë ɛ̈).
  4. (Teuthonista) Greater rounding of a vowel.
    Diacritic may be doubled for more rounding: ⟨ë̈⟩.
  5. (ISO 233) Used with the letter to transcribe Arabic ة.
  6. (actuarial notation) Used to indicate that the payments occur at the beginning of a period.
    än̅|n-year annuity-due

Usage notes

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The spacing character U+00A8 is retained for compatibility with pre-Unicode encodings. It is equivalent to ◌̈ docked to a space, U+0020 (i.e. ⟨ ̈ ⟩), and there is no need for it in modern typography except to refer to itself.

Derived terms

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English

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Diacritical mark

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◌̈

  1. (dated) Used to indicate that two identical vowels occur in separate morphemes and are pronounced separately: coöperate, reënter, reëstablish, noöne.
  2. Used to indicate that the marked vowel is the nucleus of its own syllable: Boötes, Brontë, Chloë, Zoë, (dated) aëroplane, aërial.
  3. Retained in foreign (mostly French) loan words where vowels are pronounced separately: naïve (or naive), Noël (or Noel), but also for umlaut in German Götterdämmerung, Führer.

Usage notes

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This diacritic is called a diaeresis (or dieresis), trema, or – strictly speaking for German and similar orthographies – umlaut.

In all such cases apart from family names, usage is optional. For German loans, there is the additional option of replacing the umlaut with a digraph in e, e.g. Fuehrer.

◌́ is more commonly used to indicate that a final e is pronounced, e.g. animé, but in the case of a name like Chloe that might imply the wrong stress or vowel quality (e.g. spurious "kloh-AY" rather than "KLOH-ee").

Albanian

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Diacritical mark

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◌̈

  1. Used with the letter ⟨e⟩ to make ë, which transcribes the sound [ə]

Ancient Greek

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A gray lowercase alpha and upsilon with a red diaeresis over the upsilon.

Diacritical mark

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◌̈

  1. A diacritical mark of the Greek script, called διαίρεσις (diaíresis, division) in Ancient Greek, and found on Ϊ/ϊ and Ϋ/ϋ. It is also known by the names διαλυτική (dialutikḗ, severing) or τρῆμα (trêma, dots on a die). It was used to indicate that the vowel letter ι (i) or υ (u) formed a separate syllable rather than a diphthong when written after another vowel letter.

See also

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Dutch

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Diacritical mark

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◌̈

  1. A diacritical mark of the Latin script, called trema (diaeresis) in Dutch, and found on Ä/ä, Ë/ë, Ï/ï, Ö/ö and Ü/ü.
  2. A diacritical mark of the Latin script, called umlaut (umlaut) in Dutch, and found on Ä/ä, Ö/ö and Ü/ü.

Usage notes

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The diaeresis is used to indicate that two vowels are to be pronounced separately as two syllables, rather than as a diphthong or single vowel. For example, geïnd (collected), reëel (realistic), zeeën (seas). In compound words, a hyphen - is used between the syllables instead. The same occurs when a word is hyphenated at the end of a line of print, e.g. ge-ind, re-eel, zee-en for the previous.

The umlaut is used only in words of German origin, such as föhn.

French

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Diacritical mark

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◌̈

  1. tréma; when placed above a letter, indicates that the vowel letter should be pronounced separately from a vowel letter next to it.

German

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Diacritical mark

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◌̈

  1. A diacritical mark of the Latin script, called Umlaut (umlaut) in German, and found on Ä/ä, Ö/ö and Ü/ü.
  2. A diacritical mark of the Latin script, called Trema in German, and found on Ë/ë and Ï/ï.

Greek

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Diacritical mark

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◌̈

  1. A diacritical mark of the Greek script, called διαλυτικά in Greek, and found on ί/ΐ/ϋ.

Hungarian

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Diacritical mark

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◌̈

  1. A diacritical mark of the Latin script, called tréma (trema) in Hungarian, and found on Ö/ö and Ü/ü.

Ligurian

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Diacritical mark

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◌̈

  1. A diacritical mark of the Latin script, called doî pónti or diêrexi (two points” or “diaeresis) in Ligurian, and found on Ö/ö.
    1. Used to denote stressed or unstressed /ɔː/

Portuguese

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Diacritical mark

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◌̈

  1. (obsolete) A diacritical mark of the Latin script, called trema (trema) in Portuguese, and found on Ü/ü.

Usage notes

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  • Formerly used, in the letter u, formed ü, in the syllables qüe, qüi, güe and güi. In these syllables, the letter u without a trema would be silent; with the trema it would have the sound of the semivowel /w/.

Romani

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Diacritical mark

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◌̈

  1. A diacritical mark of the Latin script in Romani, and found on Ä/ä, Ë/ë, Ï/ï, Ö/ö and Ü/ü.

References

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  • Marcel Courthiade (2009) “DECISION : "THE ROMANI ALPHABET"”, in Melinda Rézműves, editor, Morri angluni rromane ćhibǎqi evroputni lavustik = Első rromani nyelvű európai szótáram : cigány, magyar, angol, francia, spanyol, német, ukrán, román, horvát, szlovák, görög [My First European-Romani Dictionary: Romani, Hungarian, English, French, Spanish, German, Ukrainian, Romanian, Croatian, Slovak, Greek] (overall work in Hungarian and English), Budapest: Fővárosi Onkormányzat Cigány Ház--Romano Kher, →ISBN, page 499
  • Introduction 3. How to read Rromani”, in R.E.D-RROM[1], 2021 October 2 (last accessed)
  • Yūsuke Sumi (2018) ニューエクスプレスプラス ロマ(ジプシー)語 [New Express Plus Romani (Gypsy)] (in Japanese), Tokyo: Hakusuisha, published 2021, →ISBN, →OCLC, pages 16-17

Spanish

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Diacritical mark

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◌̈

  1. A diacritical mark of the Latin script, called diéresis (diaeresis) in Spanish, and found on Ü/ü. Indicate that the 'u' is pronounced between a 'c' or 'g' and a vowel 'e' or 'i', as in Malagüez.

Tagalog

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Diacritical mark

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◌̈

  1. Only used in ë: centralized vowel
  2. (obsolete) Used to indicate that a vowel must be pronounced separately from the previous consonant such as in gabï (gab-i), butö (but-o)

Welsh

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Diacritical mark

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◌̈

  1. A diacritical mark of the Latin script, called didolnod (separation mark) in Welsh, and found on Ä/ä, Ë/ë, Ï/ï, Ö/ö, Ü/ü, / and Ÿ/ÿ.