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JapaneseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

mawirasurumairasurumarasurumassurumasurumasu

The -ます ending is generally believed to have come from the Old Japanese auxiliary verb まゐらする (mawirasuru, to humbly do something for a superior), with idiomatic use arising from the causative conjugation of 参る (mairu, to come or go to the place of a social superior, humble verb; ancient reading mawiru).[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): [ma̠sɨ̥ᵝ]
  • In Tokyo speech, the accent falls somewhere in the suffix, regardless of the accent type of the suffixed verb:[3]
    • If the suffix is in the form ます (-masu) or ました (-mashita, past/perfective form), the accent of the verb construction falls on the first mora of the suffix.
    • If the suffix is in the form ましょう (-mashō, volitional/conjectural form) or ません (-masen, negative form), the accent of the verb construction falls on the second mora of the suffix.
  • There are a few exceptions like 恐れ入る: れいる [òsóꜜrèìrù] (Nakadaka) → れいります [òsóꜜrèìrìmàsù] (Nakadaka).

Alternative formsEdit

SuffixEdit

ます (rōmaji -masu)

  1. (jodōshi) expresses politeness toward and distance from the listener: vaguely similar to the social context indicated by the usted verb conjugation in Spanish, the vous conjugation in French, or the Sie conjugation in German
ConjugationEdit

Other forms not attested.

Usage notesEdit

Connects to the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of a verb and inflects partially like type-1 verbs. The imperative forms are only used with honorific verbs, e.g. いらっしゃいませ (irasshaimase), なさいませ (nasaimase), 下さいませ (kudasaimase). The perfective has an irregular negative form ませんでした (masen deshita); the hypothetical conditional is rare. The old dictionary form まする (masuru) is still sometimes used. When there is a choice, attaches last: e.g. polite passive is 話されます (hanasaremasu), not 話しまされる (*hanashimasareru).

Derived termsEdit
See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

The reading of various kanji.

Pronunciation 1Edit

NounEdit

ます (rōmaji masu)

  1. : trout
  2. , , , : a traditional Japanese cup (unit of measurement)
VerbEdit

ます (rōmaji masu)

  1. 増す, 益す: to increase in amount or degree

Pronunciation 2Edit

NounEdit

ます (rōmaji masu)

  1. : trout
  2. , , , : a traditional Japanese cup (unit of measurement)
  3. : (architecture) the capital of a wooden pillar

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ Online Japanese Accent Dictionary (OJAD)