ChineseEdit

 
one; single; a
one; single; a; (before verbs) as soon as, once; (before a noun) entire (family, etc.)
man; person; people
simp. and trad.
(一人)

PronunciationEdit


NounEdit

一人

  1. a person; one person; someone

AdverbEdit

一人

  1. by one person; alone

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic (一人):
  • Japanese: 一人(いちにん) (ichinin)

JapaneseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
ひと
Grade: 1

Grade: 1
kun’yomi
Alternative spellings
独り
1人

From Old Japanese.

Derived from (hito, one, 1) +‎ (-ri, counter for persons).

Compare Old Japanese 一人 (pi1dari → hidari).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(ひと)() (hitori

  1. one person
    一人(ひとり)()らすhitori de kurasuto live by oneself (without companions)
    一人(ひとり)カラオケヒトカラhitori karaoke/hitokaraone-man karaoke session
    一人(ひとり)時間(じかん)()(ひと)hitori no jikan ga suki na hitoperson who likes their alone time
  2. singleness, singularity
    Synonym: 単独 (tandoku)
  3. one's own efforts or strengths
    Synonyms: 自力 (jiriki), 独力 (dokuryoku)
  4. an unmarried person, single
    Synonym: 独身 (dokushin)
Usage notesEdit
  • Like 二人 (futari), despite its etymology, furigana notations for this word tend not to use mono-ruby by attaching kana to each kanji ((ひと)()), but group-ruby by attaching all the kana to all the kanji as a whole (一人(ひとり)).
Derived termsEdit
IdiomsEdit
ProverbsEdit
See alsoEdit

AdverbEdit

(ひと)() (hitori

  1. solely
    Synonym: 単独 (tandoku de)
  2. only, simply
    Synonyms: ただ (tada), ただ単に (tada tan ni), 単に (tan ni)
  3. alone, automatically, by itself, naturally
    Synonyms: 自然に (jinen ni), 独りでに (hitoride ni)

Proper nounEdit

(ひと)() (Hitori

  1. a female given name

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
いち
Grade: 1
にん
Grade: 1
goon
Alternative spelling
1人

From Middle Chinese 一人 (MC ʔiɪt̚ ȵiɪn).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(いち)(にん) (ichinin

  1. one person
  2. the first or top person in a particular place or field
  3. Synonym of 右大臣 (udaijin): a minister of the right in the imperial Council of State
Derived termsEdit
IdiomsEdit
ProverbsEdit
See alsoEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
いち
Grade: 1
じん
Grade: 1
goon kan’on

Compound of Middle Chinese elements (ichi, one, 1, goon reading) +‎ (jin, person, kan'on reading).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(いち)(じん) (ichijin

  1. a ruler with a heavenly mandate, especially the Emperor of Japan
    Synonyms: 上一人 (kami ichinin), 上御一人 (kami go-ichinin), 天子 (tenshi), 天皇 (tennō)
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

Various nanori readings.

Proper nounEdit

一人(かずと) or 一人(かずひと) or 一人(かずんど) or 一人(くにひと) (Kazuto or Kazuhito or Kazundo or Kunihito

  1. a male given name

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

Old JapaneseEdit

Alternative formsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From (pi1to2, one, 1) +‎ (-ri, counter for persons).

NounEdit

一人 (pi1to2ri) (kana ひとり)

  1. one person
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, poem 818), text here
      波流佐禮婆麻豆佐久耶登能烏梅能波奈比等利美都都夜波流比久良佐武
      paru sareba madu saku yado1 no2 ume2 no2 pana pi1to2ri mi1tutu ya parupi1 kurasamu
      When spring comes and the first plums bloom in your garden, could you spend the long spring days looking on them by yourself?[1]
  2. an unmarried person, single
    • 711712, Kojiki (poem 65)
      夜多能比登母登須宜比登理袁理登母意富岐彌斯與斯登岐許佐婆比登理袁理登母
      Yata no2 pi1to2mo2to2 suge2 pa pi1to2ri wori to2 mo2 opoki1mi1 si yo2si to2 ki1ko2saba pi1to2ri wori to2 mo2
      Though like the single stalk of Yata sedge, I remain alone, if Your Majesty agrees, It will not matter that I remain alone.[2]
Derived termsEdit
DescendantsEdit
See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Two possible derivations:

  • From (pi1-, short form of pi1to2, “one, 1) +‎ (-tari, counter for persons). However, pi1- was never attested as a short form of pi1to2 until the Middle Japanese stage.
  • Alternatively, a shift from (pi1to2, one, 1) +‎ (-tari, counter for persons):
    ⟨pi1to2 tari⟩ → */pʲit̚tari/⟨pi1dari⟩

Given the shift of -ta to -da due to rendaku (連濁), the second derivation seems likely.

NounEdit

一人 (pi1dari) (kana ひだり)

  1. (rare, possibly regional, Eastern Old Japanese) one person
    • 720, Nihon Shoki (poem 11)
      愛瀰詩毗儾利毛毛那比苔比苔破易陪廼毛多牟伽毗毛勢儒
      Emi1si wo pi1dari momo na pi1to2 pi1to2 pa ipe2do2 mo tamukapi1 mo sezu
      A single Emishi is worth a hundred men, so they say, yet they did not resist.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Paula Doe; Yakamochi Ōtomo (1982) A Warbler's Song in the Dusk: The Life and Work of Ōtomo Yakamochi (718-785), illustrated edition, University of California Press, →ISBN, page 31
  2. ^ Jin'ichi Konishi (2017) Nicholas Teele, transl.; , Earl Roy Miner, editor, A History of Japanese Literature, Volume 1: The Archaic and Ancient Ages (Princeton Legacy Library), Princeton University Press, →ISBN, page 145