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ChineseEdit

three ten
simp. and trad.
(三十)
anagram 十三
Chinese cardinal numbers
 <  29 30 31  > 
    Cardinal : 三十

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 1/1
Initial () (16) (25)
Final () (143) (141)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/sɑm/ /d͡ʑiɪp̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/sɑm/ /d͡ʑip̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/sɑm/ /d͡ʑjep̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/sam/ /d͡ʑip̚/
Li
Rong
/sɑm/ /ʑiəp̚/
Wang
Li
/sɑm/ /ʑĭĕp̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/sɑm/ /ʑi̯əp̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
sān shí
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
sān shí
Middle
Chinese
‹ sam › ‹ dzyip ›
Old
Chinese
/*s.rum/ (*s.r- > s-; infl. by 四 *s-?) /*t.[ɡ]əp/
English three ten

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 1/1
No. 10963 11452
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3 3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*suːm/ /*ɡjub/

NumeralEdit

三十

  1. thirty; 30
    昨天收到三十垃圾短信 [MSC, trad.]
    昨天收到三十垃圾短信 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ zuótiān shōudào le sānshí duō tiáo lājī duǎnxìn. [Pinyin]
    I received over 30 spam text messages yesterday.

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic (三十):

JapaneseEdit

Japanese cardinal numbers
 <  29 30 31  > 
    Cardinal : 三十

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
さん
Grade: 1
じゅう
Grade: 1
on’yomi

*/sanzipu//sanʑifu//sanʑiu//sand͡ʑuː/

From Middle Chinese 三十 (MC sɑm d͡ʑiɪp̚). Analyzable as (san, three) + (, ten).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

三十 (hiragana さんじゅう, rōmaji sanjū, historical hiragana さんじふ)

  1. thirty

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1

Grade: 1
kun’yomi

⟨mi1so1/miso/

From Old Japanese. Compound of (mi, three) +‎ (so, ten).[2]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

三十 (hiragana みそ, rōmaji miso)

  1. thirty

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
Grade: 1 Grade: 1
Irregular

/mi so ti//misot͡ɕi/

From Old Japanese. Compound of 三十 (miso, thirty) +‎ (chi, road), where the road sense of (chi) is used metaphorically as a unit of time, usually expressing a sense of day, but also sometimes used to mean year.[2]

This reading is obsolete, and has been superseded by misoji below.

PronunciationEdit

  • (Irregular reading)

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

三十 (hiragana みそち, rōmaji misochi)

  1. (obsolete) thirty
  2. (obsolete) thirty years of age

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
Grade: 1 Grade: 1
Irregular

Shift from earlier misochi (see above).[1] The -chi changes to -ji as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

三十 (hiragana みそじ, rōmaji misoji, historical hiragana みそぢ)

  1. (uncommon) thirty
  2. (uncommon) thirty years of age

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

KoreanEdit

Hanja in this term

NumeralEdit

三十 (samsip) (hangeul 삼십)

  1. Hanja form? of 삼십 (thirty).

VietnameseEdit

Hán tự in this term

NumeralEdit

三十

  1. Hán tự form of tam thập (thirty).