ChineseEdit

not; no to know; to be aware
simp. and trad.
(不知)

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3 1/1
Initial () (1) (1) (1) (9)
Final () (136) (136) (60) (11)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Rising (X) Checked (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open Closed Open
Division () III III III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/pɨu/ /pɨuX/ /pɨut̚/ /ʈiᴇ/
Pan
Wuyun
/piu/ /piuX/ /piut̚/ /ʈiɛ/
Shao
Rongfen
/piəu/ /piəuX/ /piuət̚/ /ȶjɛ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/puw/ /puwX/ /put̚/ /ʈiə̆/
Li
Rong
/piu/ /piuX/ /piuət̚/ /ȶie/
Wang
Li
/pĭəu/ /pĭəuX/ /pĭuət̚/ /ȶǐe/
Bernard
Karlgren
/pi̯ə̯u/ /pi̯ə̯uX/ /pi̯uət̚/ /ȶie̯/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
fōu fǒu fu zhī
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
fau1 fau2 fat1 zi1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhī
Middle
Chinese
‹ pjuw › ‹ trje ›
Old
Chinese
/*pə/ /*tre/
English not know

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3 1/1
No. 1025 1029 1048 11495
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0 1 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*pɯ/ /*pɯʔ/ /*pɯ'/ /*ʔl'e/
Notes

VerbEdit

不知

  1. to not know; to have no idea of; to be ignorant of
    不知其中奧妙 / 不知其中奥妙  ―  bùzhī qízhōng àomiào  ―  to be ignorant of the marvels therein
    犯錯不知悔改 [MSC, trad.]
    犯错不知悔改 [MSC, simp.]
    fàncuò hòu hái bùzhī huǐgǎi [Pinyin]
    to not mend one's ways after making a mistake
    不知何時相見 [MSC, trad.]
    不知何时相见 [MSC, simp.]
    Ài, wǒ bùzhī héshí zài néng yǔ tā xiàngjiàn. [Pinyin]
    Alas, I do not know when I will see him again.
  2. to wonder if (as used in a question or request)
    不知是否時間 [MSC, trad.]
    不知是否时间 [MSC, simp.]
    Bùzhī nín shìfǒu yǒu shíjiān. [Pinyin]
    I wonder if you might have time.

SynonymsEdit

  • (to not know):

AntonymsEdit

  • (to not know):

Derived termsEdit


JapaneseEdit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 4

Grade: 2
on’yomi

EtymologyEdit

() (fu, not) + () (chi, know)

NounEdit

()() (fuchi

  1. ignorance (not knowing)
  2. ignorance (lacking intelligence)

SynonymsEdit

Related termsEdit

ReferencesEdit


Old KoreanEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • 安徐 (entirely phonogramic form, Idu script variant)
  • 不喩 (Idu script variant, believed to be a different term by Vovin; also see Usage Notes)
  • 非知, 未知 (different logogram, gugyeol variant depending on Chinese original text)

EtymologyEdit

Potentially a compound of *an (ancestral negating root) + *to (semantically light noun meaning "objective fact", whence Middle Korean ᄃᆞ (to)) + *-i (some kind of suffix).

ParticleEdit

不知 (*ANti)

  1. Particle negating an adjacent noun or noun phrase.

Usage notesEdit

  • This particle was restricted to negating nouns, including nominalized verbs. Verbs were negated with the adverb 不冬 (*ANtol) instead. In every uncontroversial example in the currently known corpus, adjectives were nominalized and then negated with 不知 (*ANti). Whether this represents a genuine grammatical phenomenon in Old Korean or simply coincidence due to the very limited corpus is not clear.
  • Its Middle Korean reflex 아니〮 (àní) served as both a noun and an adverb, having displaced 不冬, and the Modern reflex behaves solely as an adverb. The contemporary form 아니다 (anida, to not be), showing an incorporation of the copula 이다 (-ida, to be) which combines only with nouns, remains as a vestige of the Old Korean function.
  • Vovin argues that the Idu script variant 不喩 should be seen as a related but different form, which he reconstructs as approximately *AN-koy. Both would be derived from the hypothetical negative root *an-. The conventional view in Korean scholarship is to read 不喩 as a graphic variant of 不知 because fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Idu manuals in Hangul, which conserve significant elements of the Old Korean reading of phonograms, gloss the former sequence as 아닌디 (aninti). Furthermore, there appears to be no semantic difference between 不知 and 不喩. On the other hand, it is difficult to explain how could ever have been taken as a phonogram for *ti.

DescendantsEdit

  • Middle Korean: 아니 (ani, not)
    • Korean: 아니 (ani, not)
  • Southeastern Korean:
  • Middle Korean: 아니다 (anita, to not be)
    • Korean: 아니다 (anida, to not be)
  • Proto-Northern Tungusic: *anti

See alsoEdit

  • 不冬 (*ANtol) (verbal negator)
  • 毛冬 (*mwotol) (marker of inability)
  • 不只 (*ANTOk) (marker of inability)

Further readingEdit

  • 이용 (Yi Yong) (2003), “釋讀口訣에 나타난 不定詞의 機能에 대하여 [On the functions of the negative particles in interpretive gugyeol]”, in Gugyeol Yeon'gu, volume 11, pages 249–273
  • 남풍현 (Nam Pung-hyeon) (2010), “獻花歌의 解讀 [Readings of the "Heonhwa-ga"]”, in Gugyeol Yeon'gu, volume 24, pages 5–35
  • 박지용 外 (Park Ji-yong et al.) (2012) 향가 해독 자료집 [A Sourcebook of Hyangga Interpretations], Seoul National University, page 18
  • Alexander Vovin (2018), “Two Tungusic Etymologies”, in Studia Orientalia Slovaca[1], volume 17, pages 125–134