|not; no||to know; to be aware|
|simp. and trad.
- to not know; to have no idea of; to be ignorant of
- 不知其中奧妙 / 不知其中奥妙 ― bùzhī qízhōng àomiào ― to be ignorant of the marvels therein
- to wonder if (as used in a question or request)
- (to not know):
Synonyms of 不知
- (to not know):
Antonyms of 不知
Derived terms from 不知
|Kanji in this term|
- ignorance (not knowing)
- ignorance (lacking intelligence)
- 無知 (muchi)
- 不知火 (shiranui)
- 安徐 (entirely phonogramic form, Idu script variant)
- 不喩 (Idu script variant, believed to be a different term by Vovin; also see Usage Notes)
- 非知, 未知 (different logogram, gugyeol variant depending on Chinese original text)
- This particle was restricted to negating nouns, including nominalized verbs. Verbs were negated with the adverb 不冬 (*ANtol) instead. In every uncontroversial example in the currently known corpus, adjectives were nominalized and then negated with 不知 (*ANti). Whether this represents a genuine grammatical phenomenon in Old Korean or simply coincidence due to the very limited corpus is not clear.
- Its Middle Korean reflex 아니〮 (àní) served as both a noun and an adverb, having displaced 不冬, and the Modern reflex behaves solely as an adverb. The contemporary form 아니다 (anida, “to not be”), showing an incorporation of the copula 이다 (-ida, “to be”) which combines only with nouns, remains as a vestige of the Old Korean function.
- Vovin argues that the Idu script variant 不喩 should be seen as a related but different form, which he reconstructs as approximately *AN-koy. Both would be derived from the hypothetical negative root *an-. The conventional view in Korean scholarship is to read 不喩 as a graphic variant of 不知 because fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Idu manuals in Hangul, which conserve significant elements of the Old Korean reading of phonograms, gloss the former sequence as 아닌디 (aninti). Furthermore, there appears to be no semantic difference between 不知 and 不喩. On the other hand, it is difficult to explain how 喩 could ever have been taken as a phonogram for *ti.
- Middle Korean: 아니 (ani, “not”)
- Korean: 아니 (ani, “not”)
- Southeastern Korean:
- ⇒ Middle Korean: 아니다 (anita, “to not be”)
- ⇒ Korean: 아니다 (anida, “to not be”)
- → Proto-Northern Tungusic: *anti
- 이용 (Yi Yong) (2003), “釋讀口訣에 나타난 不定詞의 機能에 대하여 [On the functions of the negative particles in interpretive gugyeol]”, in Gugyeol Yeon'gu, volume 11, pages 249–273
- 남풍현 (Nam Pung-hyeon) (2010), “獻花歌의 解讀 [Readings of the "Heonhwa-ga"]”, in Gugyeol Yeon'gu, volume 24, pages 5–35
- 박지용 外 (Park Ji-yong et al.) (2012) 향가 해독 자료집 [A Sourcebook of Hyangga Interpretations], Seoul National University, page 18
- Alexander Vovin (2018), “Two Tungusic Etymologies”, in Studia Orientalia Slovaca, volume 17, pages 125–134