U+4E16, 世
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E16

[U+4E15]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E17]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 1, +4, 5 strokes, cangjie input 心廿 (PT), four-corner 44717, composition 廿𠃊)

Derived characters edit

Descendants edit

Further reading edit

Chinese Wikisource has digitized text of the Kangxi Dictionary entry for :
[[wikisource:zh:康熙字典/一部/四畫#世|一部/四畫]]

Wikisource


  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 77, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 31
  • Dae Jaweon: page 155, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 14, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+4E16

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     




References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Etymology edit

(OC *hljebs) is derived from iterative devoicing of (OC *leb, “leaf”) + *-s suffix, meaning successive foliages of a tree > generations. Compare Tibetan ལོ་མ (lo ma, leaf), Western Tibetan ལོབ་མ (lob ma, leaf) and Tibetan ལོ (lo, year).

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • Xiamen, Quanzhou, Taiwan:
    • sì - vernacular;
    • sè - literary.
  • (Teochew)
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʂʐ̩⁵¹/
    Harbin /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
    Tianjin /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
    Jinan /ʂʐ̩²¹/
    Qingdao /ʃz̩⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʂʐ̩³¹²/
    Xi'an /ʂʐ̩⁴⁴/
    Xining /ʂʐ̩²¹³/
    Yinchuan /ʂʐ̩¹³/
    Lanzhou /ʂʐ̩¹³/
    Ürümqi /ʂʐ̩²¹³/
    Wuhan /sz̩³⁵/
    Chengdu /sz̩¹³/
    Guiyang /sz̩²¹³/
    Kunming /ʂʐ̩²¹²/
    Nanjing /ʂʐ̩⁴⁴/
    Hefei /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
    Jin Taiyuan /sz̩⁴⁵/
    Pingyao /ʂʐ̩³⁵/
    Hohhot /sz̩⁵⁵/
    Wu Shanghai /sz̩³⁵/
    Suzhou /sz̩ʷ⁵¹³/
    Hangzhou /sz̩⁴⁴⁵/
    Wenzhou /sei⁴²/
    Hui Shexian /ɕi³²⁴/
    Tunxi /ɕie⁴²/
    /ɕi¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ʂʐ̩⁵⁵/
    Xiangtan /ʂʐ̩⁵⁵/
    Gan Nanchang /sz̩⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /sz̩⁵³/
    Taoyuan /ʃï⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /sɐi³⁵/
    Nanning /sɐi³³/
    Hong Kong /sɐi³³/
    Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /se²¹/
    /si²¹/
    /sua²¹/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /siɛ²¹²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /si³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /si²¹³/
    Haikou (Hainanese) /ti³⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (26)
    Final () (35)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter syejH
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɕiᴇiH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɕiɛiH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɕjæiH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɕiajH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɕiɛiH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɕĭɛiH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɕi̯ɛiH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shì
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    sai3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shì
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ syejH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*l̥ap-s/
    English generation

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 11537
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*hljebs/
    Notes

    Definitions edit

    1. generation
        ―  shìdài  ―  generation
      德皇威廉  ―  déhuáng Wēilián èr shì  ―  Kaiser Wilhelm II
    2. (literary, or in compounds) for many generations; spanning many generations
        ―  shì  ―  to inherit; to succeed
        ―  shìchóu  ―  hereditary enemy
    3. (in terms of address) longstanding friendship between two families; generations of family friendship
        ―  shì  ―  uncle (friend of one's father)
    4. lifetime; all one's life; one's whole life
      一生一  ―  yīshēngyīshì  ―  all one's life
      [Cantonese]  ―  haa6 sai3 [Jyutping]  ―  next life
    5. era; period; time
      當今当今  ―  dāngjīn zhī shì  ―  at present; nowadays
    6. (geology) epoch (geochronologic unit)
      全新  ―  quánxīnshì  ―  holocene
    7. world; people in the world
        ―  shìjiè  ―  world
        ―  zàishì  ―  alive
    8. (literary, or in compounds) dynasty; regime
    9. (literary, or in compounds) year; age
    10. (literary, or in compounds) worldly; profane; secular
      人情  ―  rénqíngshì  ―  ways of the world
    11. a surname

    Synonyms edit

    • (generation): (dài)
    • (for many generations):
    • (lifetime):
    • (era):
    • (world):
    • (dynasty):

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling

    ⟨yo2/yo/

    From Old Japanese, pronunciation is distinct from (/⁠yo1⁠/, night, nighttime).

    Change in meaning of (yo), in the sense of the bamboos and reeds bulging at certain intervals.[1]

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    () (yo

    1. world, society
    2. this world, this life
      Synonym: 俗世間 (zoku seken)
    3. (archaic) generation, age, era
    4. lifetime
      Synonym: 一生 (isshō)
    5. lifespan
      Synonym: 寿命 (jumyō)
    6. time of year, season
      Synonyms: 時節 (jisetsu), 時期 (jiki), (ori)
    7. relationship between a man and a woman
    8. period of a person leading as a patriarch (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
    Derived terms edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term
    せい
    Grade: 3
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC syejH). The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing.

    Counter edit

    (せい) (-sei

    1. generation
      ルパン(さん)(せい)
      Rupan-sansei
      Lupin the Third

    Suffix edit

    (せい) (-sei

    1. (geology) epoch

    Proper noun edit

    (せい) (Sei

    1. a female given name

    References edit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Akira Matsumura, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean edit

    Etymology edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC syejH).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 솅〮 (Yale: syéy)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 누리〮 (Yale: nwùlí) 셰〯 (Yale: syěy)
    Sinjeung Yuhap, 1576 인간 (Yale: inkan) (Yale: syey)

    Pronunciation edit

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [sʰe̞(ː)]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

    Hanja edit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 인간(人間) )

    1. Hanja form? of (world).
    2. Hanja form? of (lineage; generation).

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

    Okinawan edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology edit

    Kanji in this term
    ゆー
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (yo).

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (ゆー) (

    1. age, era, period, time; rule
    2. world, society

    Derived terms edit

    References edit

    • ゆー【世】” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Việt readings: thế
    : Nôm readings: thế, thá, thé, thể

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References edit