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It-世.png
U+4E16, 世
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E16

[U+4E15]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E17]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 1, +4, 5 strokes, cangjie input 心廿 (PT), four-corner 44717, composition廿𠃊)

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 77, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 31
  • Dae Jaweon: page 155, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 14, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+4E16

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     




References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɦljebs, *hljebs
*l̥ʰebs, *lebs
*ʔljebs
*hljebs
*lebs, *sled
*lebs
*lebs
*lebs
*lebs
*lebs, *led
*lebs
*lebs, *libs
*l̥ʰeːbs
*l̥ʰaːb, *l'eːb
*zreːb, *sled
*zreːb, *l̥ʰeb, *leb
*rlaːb, *ʔl'eːb, *l'eːb
*rlaːb, *sleːb
*l'eb, *leb, *lab
*hljeb, *leb
*hljeb, *hleːb
*hljeb, *sleːb
*leb
*leb
*leb, *l'eːb, *ɦljed
*leb
*leb, *hleːb
*l̥ʰeːb, *l'eːb
*l'eːb
*l'eːb
*l'eːb
*l'eːb
*l'eːb
*l'eːb
*l'eːb
*l'eːb
*sleːb
*sleːb
*sled
*sled
*sled
*sled
*sled

Pictogram (象形) – three leaves on a branch. The derivative (OC *hljeb, *leb) refers to the original word.

EtymologyEdit

(OC *hljebs) is derived from iterative devoicing of (OC *leb, “leaf”) + *-s suffix, meaning successive foliages of a tree > generations. Compare Tibetan ལོ་མ (lo ma, leaf), Western Tibetan ལོབ་མ (lob ma, leaf) and Tibetan ལོ (lo, year).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • sì - vernacular;
  • sè - literary;
  • sì - literary (Zhangzhou).
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʂʐ̩⁵¹/
    Harbin /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
    Tianjin /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
    Jinan /ʂʐ̩²¹/
    Qingdao /ʃz̩⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʂʐ̩³¹²/
    Xi'an /ʂʐ̩⁴⁴/
    Xining /ʂʐ̩²¹³/
    Yinchuan /ʂʐ̩¹³/
    Lanzhou /ʂʐ̩¹³/
    Ürümqi /ʂʐ̩²¹³/
    Wuhan /sz̩³⁵/
    Chengdu /sz̩¹³/
    Guiyang /sz̩²¹³/
    Kunming /ʂʐ̩²¹²/
    Nanjing /ʂʐ̩⁴⁴/
    Hefei /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
    Jin Taiyuan /sz̩⁴⁵/
    Pingyao /ʂʐ̩³⁵/
    Hohhot /sz̩⁵⁵/
    Wu Shanghai /sz̩³⁵/
    Suzhou /sz̩ʷ⁵¹³/
    Hangzhou /sz̩⁴⁴⁵/
    Wenzhou /sei⁴²/
    Hui Shexian /ɕi³²⁴/
    Tunxi /ɕie⁴²/
    /ɕi¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ʂʐ̩⁵⁵/
    Xiangtan /ʂʐ̩⁵⁵/
    Gan Nanchang /sz̩⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /sz̩⁵³/
    Taoyuan /ʃï⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /sɐi³⁵/
    Nanning /sɐi³³/
    Hong Kong /sɐi³³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /se²¹/
    /si²¹/
    /sua²¹/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /siɛ²¹²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /si³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /si²¹³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ti³⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (26)
    Final () (35)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɕiᴇiH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɕiɛiH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɕjæiH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɕiajH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɕiɛiH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɕĭɛiH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɕi̯ɛiH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shì
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shì
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ syejH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*l̥ap-s/
    English generation

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 11537
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*hljebs/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. generation
        ―  shìdài  ―  generation
    2. for many generations; spanning many generations
    3. era; period; time; epoch
    4. dynasty; regime
    5. year; age
    6. Classifier for the time of one's life.
      一生一  ―  yīshēngyīshì  ―  a lifetime, all of one's life
    7. world; earth; people in the world
        ―  shìjiè  ―  world
    8. worldly; profane; secular
    9. A surname​.

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    ⟨yo2/yo/

    From Old Japanese, pronunciation is distinct from (/yo1/, night, nighttime).

    Change in meaning of (yo), in the sense of the bamboos and reeds bulging at certain intervals.[1]

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji yo)

    1. world, society
    2. this world, this life
      Synonym: 俗世間 (zoku seken)
    3. generation, age, era
    4. lifetime
      Synonym: 一生 (isshō)
    5. lifespan
      Synonym: 寿命 (jumyō)
    6. time of year, season
      Synonyms: 時節 (jisetsu), 時期 (jiki), (ori)
    7. relationship between a man and a woman
    8. period of a person leading as a patriarch (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    せい
    Grade: 3
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɕiᴇiH). The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing.

    CounterEdit

    (hiragana せい, rōmaji -sei)

    1. generation
      ルパン (さん) (せい)
      Rupan-sansei
      Lupin the Third

    SuffixEdit

    (hiragana せい, rōmaji -sei)

    1. (geology) epoch

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana せい, rōmaji Sei)

    1. a female given name

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (se)

    • Eumhun:
      • Sound (hangeul): (revised: se, McCune–Reischauer: se, Yale: sey)
      • Name (hangeul): 인간 (revised: in-gan, McCune–Reischauer: in'gan)
    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReferencesEdit


    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (yo).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ゆー, romaji )

    1. age, era, period, time; rule
    2. world, society

    Derived termsEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (thế, thá, thé, thể)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReferencesEdit