Open main menu

Wiktionary β

It-世.png
U+4E16, 世
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E16

[U+4E15]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E17]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 1 +4, 5 strokes, cangjie input 心廿 (PT), four-corner 44717, composition廿𠃊)

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 77, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 31
  • Dae Jaweon: page 155, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 14, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+4E16

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alt. forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     




References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɦljebs, *hljebs
*l̥ʰebs, *lebs
*ʔljebs
*hljebs
*lebs, *sled
*lebs
*lebs
*lebs
*lebs
*lebs, *led
*lebs
*lebs, *libs
*l̥ʰeːbs
*l̥ʰaːb, *l'eːb
*zreːb, *sled
*zreːb, *l̥ʰeb, *leb
*rlaːb, *ʔl'eːb, *l'eːb
*rlaːb, *sleːb
*l'eb, *leb, *lab
*hljeb, *leb
*hljeb, *hleːb
*hljeb, *sleːb
*leb
*leb
*leb, *l'eːb, *ɦljed
*leb
*leb, *hleːb
*l̥ʰeːb, *l'eːb
*l'eːb
*l'eːb
*l'eːb
*l'eːb
*l'eːb
*l'eːb
*l'eːb
*l'eːb
*sleːb
*sleːb
*sled
*sled
*sled
*sled
*sled

Pictogram (象形) – three leaves on a branch. The derivative (OC *hljeb, *leb) refers to the original word.

EtymologyEdit

(OC *hljebs) is derived from iterative devoicing of (OC *leb, “leaf”) + *-s suffix, meaning successive foliages of a tree > generations. Compare Tibetan ལོ་མ (lo ma, leaf), Western Tibetan ལོབ་མ (lob ma, leaf) and Tibetan ལོ (lo, year).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • sì - vernacular;
  • sè - literary;
  • sì - literary (Zhangzhou).

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʂʐ̩⁵¹/
Harbin /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
Tianjin /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
Jinan /ʂʐ̩²¹/
Qingdao /ʃz̩⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʂʐ̩³¹²/
Xi'an /ʂʐ̩⁴⁴/
Xining /ʂʐ̩²¹³/
Yinchuan /ʂʐ̩¹³/
Lanzhou /ʂʐ̩¹³/
Ürümqi /ʂʐ̩²¹³/
Wuhan /sz̩³⁵/
Chengdu /sz̩¹³/
Guiyang /sz̩²¹³/
Kunming /ʂʐ̩²¹²/
Nanjing /ʂʐ̩⁴⁴/
Hefei /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /sz̩⁴⁵/
Pingyao /ʂʐ̩³⁵/
Hohhot /sz̩⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /sz̩³⁵/
Suzhou /sz̩ʷ⁵¹³/
Hangzhou /sz̩⁴⁴⁵/
Wenzhou /sei⁴²/
Hui Shexian /ɕi³²⁴/
Tunxi /ɕie⁴²/
/ɕi¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ʂʐ̩⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /ʂʐ̩⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /sz̩⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /sz̩⁵³/
Taoyuan /ʃï⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sɐi³⁵/
Nanning /sɐi³³/
Hong Kong /sɐi³³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /se²¹/
/si²¹/
/sua²¹/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /siɛ²¹²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /si³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /si²¹³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ti³⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (26)
Final () (35)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɕiᴇiH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɕiɛiH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɕjæiH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɕiajH/
Li
Rong
/ɕiɛiH/
Wang
Li
/ɕĭɛiH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɕi̯ɛiH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shì
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shì
Middle
Chinese
‹ syejH ›
Old
Chinese
/*l̥ap-s/
English generation

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 11537
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hljebs/
Notes

DefinitionsEdit

  1. generation
      ―  shìdài  ―  generation
  2. for many generations; spanning many generations
  3. era; period; time; epoch
  4. dynasty; regime
  5. year; age
  6. Classifier for the time of one's life.
    一生一  ―  yīshēngyīshì  ―  a lifetime, all of one's life
  7. world; earth; people in the world
      ―  shìjiè  ―  world
  8. worldly; profane; secular
  9. A surname​.

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
kun’yomi

⟨yo2/yo/

From Old Japanese, pronunciation is distinct from (/yo1/ invalid IPA characters (1), night, nighttime).

Change in meaning of (yo), in the sense of the bamboos and reeds bulging at certain intervals.[1]

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji yo)

  1. world, society
  2. this world, this life
    Synonyms: 俗世間 (zoku seken)
  3. generation, age, era
  4. lifetime
    Synonyms: 一生 (isshō)
  5. lifespan
    Synonyms: 寿命 (jumyō)
  6. time of year, season
    Synonyms: 時節 (jisetsu), 時期 (jiki), (ori)
  7. relationship between a man and a woman
  8. period of a person leading as a patriarch (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
せい
Grade: 3
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC ɕiᴇiH). The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing.

CounterEdit

(hiragana せい, rōmaji -sei)

  1. generation
    ルパン (さん) (せい)
    Rupan-sansei
    Lupin the Third

SuffixEdit

(hiragana せい, rōmaji -sei)

  1. (geology) epoch

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana せい, rōmaji Sei)

  1. a female given name

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(se)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): (revised: se, McCune-Reischauer: se, Yale: sey)
    • Name (hangeul): 인간 (revised: in-gan, McCune-Reischauer: in'gan)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReferencesEdit


OkinawanEdit

KanjiEdit

CompoundsEdit

EtymologyEdit

Cognate with mainland Japanese (yo).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana ゆー, romaji )

  1. age, era, period, time; rule
  2. world, society

Derived termsEdit


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(thế, thá, thé, thể)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReferencesEdit