Contents

ChineseEdit

man; person; people the people; nationality; citizen
simp. and trad.
(人民)

EtymologyEdit

Modern sense Wasei kango (和製漢語), borrowing from Japanese 人民 (じんみん)(jinmin, the people), semantically readapted from Chinese 人民 (“common people”).

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (38) (4)
Final () (43) (43)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵiɪn/ /miɪn/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵin/ /min/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑjen/ /mjen/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵin/ /min/
Li
Rong
/ȵiĕn/ /miĕn/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭĕn/ /mĭĕn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯ĕn/ /mi̯ĕn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
rén mín
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
rén mín
Middle
Chinese
‹ nyin › ‹ mjin ›
Old
Chinese
/*ni[ŋ]/ /*mi[ŋ]/
English (other) person people

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 10800 9130
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njin/ /*min/

NounEdit

人民

  1. people (collectively)
    孟子:「諸侯土地人民政事珠玉及身。」 [Classical Chinese, trad.]
    孟子:“诸侯土地人民政事珠玉及身。” [Classical Chinese, simp.]
    Mèngzǐ yuē: "Zhūhóu zhī bǎo sān: tǔdì, rénmín, zhèngshì. Bǎo zhūyù zhě, yāng bì jíshēn." [Pinyin]
    Mencius said, "These three are precious to a prince: the territory, the people, and governmental affairs. Calamity is sure to befall the one who values pearls and jades."

Usage notesEdit

人民 can only refer to people collectively, as a unit. To refer to people as individually countable persons, use (rén). To refer to people in an otherwise general sense, use 人們人们 (rénmen).

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic (人民):

See alsoEdit


JapaneseEdit

Kanji in this term
じん
Grade: 1
みん
Grade: 4
on'yomi

EtymologyEdit

From Middle Chinese compound 人民(*njin *min). Compare modern Mandarin 人民(rénmín), Wu 人民(zen min (T3)), Min Nan 人民(jîn-bîn).

Formerly pronounced with a consistent goon reading of ninmin, later changing to a mixed kan'on / goon reading of jinmin.[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

人民 ‎(hiragana じんみん, romaji jinmin)

  1. the people, the general public, the citizens

Derived termsEdit

SynonymsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9

KoreanEdit

Hanja in this term

HanjaEdit

人民 ‎(inmin) (hangeul 인민, McCune-Reischauer inmin, Yale inmin)

  1. the people (of a country), citizens

VietnameseEdit

Hán tự in this word

NounEdit

人民

  1. Hán tự form of nhân dân, “people