ChineseEdit

man; person; people the people; nationality; citizen
simp. and trad.
(人民)
anagram 民人

EtymologyEdit

Attestable in pre-Qin texts. Modern sense Wasei kango (和製漢語), orthographically borrowed from Japanese 人民 (じんみん) (jinmin, the people), which was in turn a semantic readaptation of Chinese 人民 (rénmín, “common people”).

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (38) (4)
Final () (43) (43)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵiɪn/ /miɪn/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵin/ /min/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑjen/ /mjen/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵin/ /min/
Li
Rong
/ȵiĕn/ /miĕn/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭĕn/ /mĭĕn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯ĕn/ /mi̯ĕn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
rén mín
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
rén mín
Middle
Chinese
‹ nyin › ‹ mjin ›
Old
Chinese
/*ni[ŋ]/ /*mi[ŋ]/
English (other) person people

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 10800 9130
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njin/ /*min/

NounEdit

人民

  1. people (collectively, as members of society)
    熱愛人民 / 热爱人民  ―  rè'ài rénmín  ―  to love the people
    人民民主專政 / 人民民主专政  ―  rénmín mínzhǔ zhuānzhèng  ―  people's democratic dictatorship
    科技人民利益服務 [MSC, trad.]
    科技人民利益服务 [MSC, simp.]
    Kējì yīng wèi rénmín lìyì fúwù. [Pinyin]
    Science and technology should work for the good of the people.
    中國人民政治協商會議 [MSC, trad.]
    中国人民政治协商会议 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhōngguó rénmín zhèngzhì xiéshāng huìyì [Pinyin]
    Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference
  2. humanity; humans (as a collective); humankind; the human race

Usage notesEdit

人民 (rénmín) can only refer to people collectively, as a unit. To refer to people as individually countable persons, use (rén). To refer to people in an otherwise general sense, use 人們人们 (rénmen).

SynonymsEdit

  • (people):

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

See alsoEdit


JapaneseEdit

Kanji in this term
じん
Grade: 1
みん
Grade: 4
on’yomi

EtymologyEdit

From Middle Chinese compound 人民 (MC ȵiɪn miɪn). Compare modern Mandarin 人民 (rénmín), Wu 人民 (zen min (T3)), Min Nan 人民 (jîn-bîn).

Formerly pronounced with a consistent 呉音 (goon) reading of ninmin, later changing to a mixed 漢音 (kan'on) / 呉音 (goon) reading of jinmin.[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

人民 (じんみん) (jinmin)

  1. the people, the general public, the citizens

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

Hanja in this term

HanjaEdit

人民 (inmin) (hangeul 인민)

  1. Hanja form? of 인민 (the people (of a country), citizens).

VietnameseEdit

Hán tự in this term

NounEdit

人民

  1. Hán tự form of nhân dân (people).