See also:
U+5102, 儂
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5102

[U+5101]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5103]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 9, +13, 15 strokes, cangjie input 人廿田女 (OTWV), four-corner 25232, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 118, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1176
  • Dae Jaweon: page 251, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 225, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+5102

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms Min
𠆧 Min Dong
Wu

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *nuːŋ): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *nuːŋ).

Etymology 1Edit

“Person; I; me > suffix for pronouns” in southeastern dialects.

Its senses of “person; human being” and “pronoun suffix” are well-attested in the classical literature, dating back to the Six Dynasties. At the present time, traces of this word are found in regions of Jiangsu (Northern Wu), Anhui (Hui), Shanghai (Northern Wu), Zhejiang (Southern Wu), Jiangxi (Gan), Fujian (Min), Guangdong (Southern Min, Cantonese), Guangxi (Cantonese) and Hainan (Min).

“Person; human”
In coastal Min (Min Dong, Min Nan and Puxian Min), it serves as the vernacular reading of (OC *njin, “person”), by itself or in compounds. It is also used in Jinqu Wu dialects (formerly classified as Wuzhou Wu and Chuqu Wu), usually written as .
“I”
was used to mean “I” in medieval poetry from the Wu region, before it was displaced by the common Chinese (MC ŋɑX, “I”). Also attested was ancient Wu 阿儂 (MC ʔɑ nuoŋ, “I”), which was abbreviated to (“I”) in certain dialects, such as Jinhua.
Pronoun suffix
This is widely found in Wu and Min dialects. The structure ‹ singular pronoun (“I, you, he/she/it”) +  › is common, with functioning either as a meaningless particle or a pluraliser. The resulting forms were thus used to mean singular or plural pronouns, and were rather prone to elision to become a single syllable. Compare the following plural pronouns in Min:
Original word Meaning Fuding
(Eastern Min)
Longyan
(Southern Min)
Xiamen
(Southern Min)
Xianyou
(Puxian Min)
我儂 we ua neiŋ gua laŋ gun () kuoŋ ~ kŋ ()
儂儂 we (inclusive) - laŋ laŋ lan () -
汝儂 you (plural) ni neiŋ li laŋ lin () tyøŋ ()
伊儂 they i neiŋ i laŋ in (𪜶) yøŋ (𪜶)
A similar chain of changes happened in the Wu dialects to arrive at the modern divergent dialectal forms for “you (singular)”. In Shanghai and some other Wu dialects, the first syllable had become elided, leaving to mean “you (singular)”.
爾儂 (MC ȵiᴇX nuoŋ)
Fenghua (Zhejiang) /n̩˧˨˦.noŋˑ/
Yuyao (Zhejiang) /noŋ˩˩˧/
Shanghai (Shanghai) /nʊŋ˨˧/ ()
Ningbo (Zhejiang) /nəu˨˩˧/
Changshu (Jiangsu) /nɛ̃˧˩/
Suzhou (Jiangsu) /ne̞˧˩/
Shengze (Jiangsu) /nə˧˩/

With regard to the etymology of this word, Huang (1980), Norman (1983) and Zhou (1986) hypothesised that this is the same as (OC *nuːŋ, “farmer; peasant”). The use of this word as a pronoun may have originated as a form of personal deprecation and then come to be used as a full-fledged pronoun. Pan and Chen (1995) considered this theory implausible, and proposed that this was originally a Baiyue substrate word, possibly of Kra-Dai origin. The initial meaning of nong was possibly a clan name, later developing to mean “person; I”. Compare Zhuang Nungz (a surname) and name of the 11th century Zhuang leader Nong Zhigao, as well as the name of the Nùng people in Vietnam.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • nè̤ng - vernacular;
  • nùng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • lâng - vernacular;
    • lông - literary.
    Note:
    • nang5 - vernacular;
    • long5 - literary.
  • Wu

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (8)
    Final () (5)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /nuoŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /nuoŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /noŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /nawŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /noŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /nuoŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /nuoŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    nóng
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9576
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nuːŋ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (coastal Min, dialectal Wu) person; human being (Classifier: md;  mn)
    2. (coastal Min) a person associated with a particular identity or trait; -er
    3. (coastal Min) physical, psychological or moral quality or condition
    4. (coastal Min) others; other people
    5. (Wu, coastal Min) I; me
    6. (archaic or Wu) you (singular)
      哪能現在上海閒話 [Shanghainese, trad.]
      哪能现在上海闲话 [Shanghainese, simp.]
      [na̱²² nəɲ³³  nʊŋ³³  ɦi²² z̻e̞³³  z̻ɑ̃²² he̞³³  ɦe̞²² ɦo³³  kɑ̃⁴⁴  ləʔ²²  ka̱⁴⁴  hɔ³⁴] [IPA]
      How come you speak Shanghainese so well?
    7. (dialectal Wu) he, him; she, her; it
    8. (Min, Wu) Suffix for pronouns, functioning as a meaningless particle or a pluralising particle.
    9. A surname​. Nong
    Usage notesEdit
    • (I):
      • Archaic in Wu.
      • In coastal Min (Min Dong nè̤ng; Hokkien lāng, lǎng, lâng; Hainanese nang2), it is often used affectionately like Mandarin 人家 (rénjia).
    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    trad.
    simp.

    Probably a Kra-Dai substrate word. Compare Proto-Tai *nwoːŋᶜ (younger sibling), Southern Kam nongx (younger sibling).

    PronunciationEdit

      This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (dialectal Cantonese) child
    2. (dialectal Cantonese) son
    3. (Leizhou Min) infant
    4. (Hainanese, polite, humble) Used as a first-person singular pronoun, especially used by someone in the younger generation.
    5. (Hainanese, endearing) A pronoun used by someone in the older generation to refer to someone in the younger generation.
    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    Kanji in this term
    わし
    Hyōgaiji
    kun’yomi

    KanjiEdit

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    Usage notesEdit

    This character is seldom used in modern Japanese.

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    わし
    Hyōgaiji
    kun’yomi

    Contraction of (watashi, I, me).[1][2]

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    • (more common)

    PronounEdit

    (わし) (washi

    1. (mainly Western Japan) I, me
    Usage notesEdit

    The term is a regular pronoun in Western Japan, used primarily by men in most regions. Depending on the region, it may be used mainly by the elderly, which is especially true for women using it, and becoming more true as usage of local variants declines in younger generations. Its use is often considered stereotypical of old people in Japanese media and is frequently used in TV shows and comics to emphasize the age of characters. However, it may also simply be used to emphasize the character as hailing from Kansai.

    More commonly spelled , or in kana to make the reading explicit.

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    かれ
    Hyōgaiji
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Compound of (ka, that, yon) +‎ (-re, nominalizing suffix for demonstratives). Found in the Man'yōshū compiled around 759.

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    • (more common)

    PronounEdit

    (かれ) (kare

    1. (rare) third person pronoun: he, she
      1. (especially) male personal third person pronoun: he, him
      2. (by extension) boyfriend
        Synonym: 彼氏
    Usage notesEdit

    Very rare spelling. See the more common spelling for more details about the term.

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eum (nong))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: nông, nùng, noọng

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.