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See also:
U+5102, 儂
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5102

[U+5101]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5103]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 9, +13, 15 strokes, cangjie input 人廿田女 (OTWV), four-corner 25232, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 118, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1176
  • Dae Jaweon: page 251, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 225, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+5102

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*nuː
*rnuːŋ, *nuːŋ
*rnuːŋ, *noŋ
*rnuːŋʔ
*noːŋs
*noːŋs
*nuːŋ
*nuːŋ
*nuːŋ
*nuːŋ
*nuːŋ
*noŋ
*noŋ
*noŋ, *njoŋ
*noŋ, *njoŋ
*noŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *nuːŋ): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *nuːŋ).

EtymologyEdit

“Person; I; me > suffix for pronouns” in southeastern dialects.

Its senses of “person; human being” and “pronoun suffix” are well-attested in the classical literature, dating back to the Six Dynasties. At the present time, traces of this word are found in regions of Jiangsu (Northern Wu), Anhui (Hui), Shanghai (Northern Wu), Zhejiang (Southern Wu), Jiangxi (Gan), Fujian (Min), Guangdong (Southern Min, Cantonese), Guangxi (Cantonese) and Hainan (Min).

“Person; human”
In coastal Min (Min Dong, Min Nan and Puxian Min), it serves as the vernacular reading of (OC *njin, “person”), by itself or in compounds. It is also used in Jinqu Wu dialects (formerly classified as Wuzhou Wu and Chuqu Wu), usually written as .
“I”
was used to mean “I” in medieval poetry from the Wu region, before it was displaced by the common Chinese (MC ŋɑX, “I”). Also attested was ancient Wu 阿儂 (MC ʔɑ nuoŋ, “I”), which was abbreviated to (“I”) in certain dialects, such as Jinhua.
“Infant”
(nɔŋ²¹) (in the dark departing tone) in Leizhou Min refers to "infant". It may be related to Zhuang nongx (younger brother) and Southern Kam nongx (younger brother and sister).
Pronoun suffix
This is widely found in Wu and Min dialects. The structure ‹ singular pronoun (“I, you, he/she/it”) +  › is common, with functioning either as a meaningless particle or a pluraliser. The resulting forms were thus used to mean singular or plural pronouns, and were rather prone to elision to become a single syllable. Compare the following plural pronouns in Min:
Original word Meaning Fuding
(Eastern Min)
Longyan
(Southern Min)
Xiamen
(Southern Min)
Xianyou
(Puxian Min)
我儂 we ua neiŋ gua laŋ gun () kuoŋ ~ kŋ ()
儂儂 we (inclusive) - laŋ laŋ lan () -
汝儂 you (plural) ni neiŋ li laŋ lin () tyøŋ ()
伊儂 they i neiŋ i laŋ in (𪜶) yøŋ (𪜶)
A similar chain of changes happened in the Wu dialects to arrive at the modern divergent dialectal forms for “you (singular)”. In Shanghai and some other Wu dialects, the first syllable had become elided, leaving to mean “you (singular)”.
爾儂 (MC ȵiᴇX nuoŋ)
Fenghua (Zhejiang) /n̩˧˨˦.noŋˑ/
Yuyao (Zhejiang) /noŋ˩˩˧/
Shanghai (Shanghai) /nʊŋ˨˧/ ()
Ningbo (Zhejiang) /nəu˨˩˧/
Changshu (Jiangsu) /nɛ̃˧˩/
Suzhou (Jiangsu) /ne̞˧˩/
Shengze (Jiangsu) /nə˧˩/

With regard to the etymology of this word, Huang (1980), Norman (1983) and Zhou (1986) hypothesised that this is the same as (OC *nuːŋ, “farmer; peasant”). The use of this word as a pronoun may have originated as a form of personal deprecation and then come to be used as a full-fledged pronoun. Pan and Chen (1995) considered this theory implausible, and proposed that this was originally a Baiyue substrate word, possibly of Tai-Kadai origin. The initial meaning of nong was possibly a clan name, later developing to mean “person; I”. Compare Zhuang Nungz (a surname) and name of the 11th century Zhuang leader Nong Zhigao, as well as the name of the Nùng people in Vietnam.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • lâng - vernacular;
  • lông - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (8)
    Final () (5)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /nuoŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /nuoŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /noŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /nawŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /noŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /nuoŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /nuoŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    nóng
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9576
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nuːŋ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (coastal Min, dialectal Wu) person; human being (Classifier: md;  mn)
    2. (coastal Min) a person associated with a particular identity or trait; -er
    3. (coastal Min) physical, psychological or moral quality or condition
    4. (coastal Min) other people
    5. (Wu, coastal Min) I; me
    6. (archaic or Wu) you (singular)
      哪能現在上海閒話 [Shanghainese, trad.]
      哪能现在上海闲话 [Shanghainese, simp.]
      [na̱²² nəɲ³³  nʊŋ³³  ɦi²² z̻e̞³³  z̻ɑ̃²² he̞³³  ɦe̞²² ɦo³³  kɑ̃⁴⁴  ləʔ²²  t͡ɕia̱⁴⁴  hɔ³⁴] [IPA]
      How come you speak Shanghainese so well?
    7. (dialectal Wu) he, him; she, her; it
    8. (Hainanese, affectionate) A pronoun used by someone in the older generation to refer to someone in the younger generation.
    9. (Leizhou Min) infant
    10. (dialectal Cantonese) child
    11. (Min, Wu) Suffix for pronouns, functioning as a meaningless particle or a pluralising particle.
    12. A surname​. Nong

    Usage notesEdit

    • (I):
      • Archaic in Wu.
      • In coastal Min (Min Dong nè̤ng; Hokkien lāng, lǎng, lâng; Hainanese nang2), it is often used affectionately like Mandarin 人家 (rénjia).
      • In Hainanese, nong3 used as a humble way for someone in the younger generation to refer to oneself.

    SynonymsEdit

    Dialectal synonyms of (“man; person”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Tianjin
    Harbin
    Shenyang
    Jinan
    Muping
    Luoyang
    Wanrong
    Xi'an
    Qingdao
    Zhengzhou
    Xining
    Xuzhou
    Yinchuan
    Lanzhou
    Ürümqi
    Wuhan
    Chengdu
    Guiyang
    Guilin
    Liuzhou
    Kunming
    Yangzhou
    Nanjing
    Hefei
    Nantong
    Malaysia
    Singapore
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou)
    Foshan
    Shunde
    Zhongshan (Shiqi)
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka)
    Taishan
    Kaiping (Chikan)
    Dongguan
    Yunfu
    Yangjiang
    Xinyi
    Nanning
    Wuzhou
    Yulin
    Hepu
    Danzhou
    Kuala Lumpur
    Gan Nanchang
    Lichuan
    Pingxiang
    Hakka Meixian
    Luchuan
    Changting
    Wuping
    Liancheng
    Ninghua
    Yudu
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Hsinchu (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Hong Kong
    Sabah
    Senai
    Singkawang
    Huizhou Jixi
    Shexian
    Tunxi
    Jin Taiyuan
    Xinzhou
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Dikou
    Songxi
    Zhenghe
    Zhenqian
    Jianyang
    Wuyishan
    Shibei
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Changle
    Fuqing
    Pingtan
    Yongtai
    Gutian
    Fu'an
    Ningde
    Shouning
    Zhouning
    Fuding
    Matsu
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Tainan
    Taichung
    Wuqi
    Hsinchu
    Taitung
    Lukang
    Sanxia
    Yilan
    Kinmen
    Magong
    Penang
    Singapore
    Philippines (Manila)
    Pingnan
    Chaozhou
    Shantou
    Haifeng
    Johor Bahru
    Wenchang
    Haikou
    Leizhou
    Puxian Min Putian
    Xianyou
    Pinghua Nanning
    Guilin
    Wu Shanghai
    Suzhou
    Hangzhou
    Wenzhou
    Chongming
    Danyang
    Jinhua
    Tangxi
    Ningbo
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng
    Xiangtan
    Loudi
    Quanzhou
    Dialectal synonyms of (“I”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese , , , , , ,
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Jinan ,
    Xi'an
    Wuhan
    Chengdu
    Yangzhou
    Hefei
    Sokuluk (Gansu Dungan)
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Hong Kong (Kam Tin Weitou)
    Macau
    Panyu
    Huadu (Huashan)
    Conghua
    Zengcheng
    Foshan
    Nanhai (Shatou)
    Shunde
    Sanshui
    Gaoming (Mingcheng)
    Zhongshan (Shiqi)
    Zhuhai (Qianshan)
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka)
    Doumen
    Jiangmen (Baisha) 𠊎
    Xinhui
    Taishan
    Kaiping (Chikan)
    Enping (Niujiang)
    Heshan (Yayao)
    Dongguan
    Bao'an (Shajing)
    Yangjiang
    Nanning
    Danzhou
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian 𠊎
    Huizhou (Huicheng Bendihua)
    Dongguan (Qingxi) 𠊎
    Shenzhen (Shatoujiao) 𠊎
    Zhongshan (Nanlang Heshui) 𠊎
    Heyuan (Bendihua) 𠊎
    Liannan 𠊎
    Conghua (Lütian) 𠊎
    Jiexi 𠊎
    Changting 𠊎
    Wuping 𠊎
    Ninghua 𠊎
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 𠊎
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 𠊎
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 𠊎
    Dongshi (Dabu) 𠊎
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 𠊎
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 𠊎
    Hong Kong 𠊎
    Jin Taiyuan
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou ,
    Min Nan Xiamen ,
    Quanzhou ,
    Zhangzhou ,
    Taipei ,
    Kaohsiung ,
    Penang
    Philippines (Manila)
    Chaozhou
    Shantou
    Haifeng
    Wenchang , humble, used by someone in the younger generation
    Wu Shanghai , , 阿拉
    Suzhou ,
    Wenzhou
    Ningbo , 我儂, 像我
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng ,
    Dialectal synonyms of (“you (singular)”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese , , , , , , , honorific,
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing , honorific
    Taiwan , honorific
    Harbin , honorific
    Shenyang
    Hailar
    Ulanhot
    Tongliao
    Chifeng , honorific
    Bayanhot , honorific
    Jinan
    Muping
    Luoyang
    Wanrong
    Xi'an
    Zhengzhou
    Xining ,
    Xuzhou ,
    Yinchuan
    Lanzhou
    Ürümqi
    Wuhan , 你家 honorific
    Chengdu
    Guiyang
    Liuzhou
    Kunming
    Yangzhou
    Nanjing
    Hefei
    Nantong
    Malaysia
    Singapore
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Hong Kong (Kam Tin Weitou)
    Macau
    Panyu
    Huadu (Huashan)
    Conghua
    Zengcheng
    Foshan
    Nanhai (Shatou)
    Shunde
    Sanshui
    Gaoming (Mingcheng)
    Zhongshan (Shiqi)
    Zhuhai (Qianshan)
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka)
    Doumen
    Jiangmen (Baisha)
    Xinhui
    Taishan
    Kaiping (Chikan)
    Enping (Niujiang)
    Heshan (Yayao)
    Dongguan
    Bao'an (Shajing)
    Shaoguan
    Yunfu
    Yangjiang
    Xinyi
    Lianjiang
    Danzhou
    Kuala Lumpur
    Gan Nanchang
    Lichuan
    Pingxiang ,
    Hakka Meixian
    Xingning
    Huidong (Daling)
    Qujiang
    Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang)
    Changting
    Pingyu
    Wuping
    Liancheng
    Ninghua
    Yudu
    Ruijin
    Shicheng
    Shangyou
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Hsinchu (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Hong Kong
    Sabah
    Senai
    Singkawang
    Huizhou Jixi , 爾仂
    Shexian
    Tunxi , 爾仂
    Jin Taiyuan
    Xinzhou , 你吶 honorific
    Baochang , honorific
    Jining , honorific
    Hohhot , honorific
    Baotou , honorific
    Dongsheng , honorific
    Linhe , honorific
    Haibowan , honorific
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Dikou
    Songxi
    Zhenghe
    Zhenqian
    Jianyang
    Wuyishan
    Shibei
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Changle
    Fuqing
    Pingtan
    Yongtai
    Gutian
    Fu'an
    Ningde
    Shouning
    Zhouning
    Fuding
    Matsu
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Tainan
    Taichung
    Wuqi
    Hsinchu
    Taitung
    Lukang
    Sanxia
    Yilan
    Kinmen
    Magong
    Penang
    Singapore
    Philippines (Manila)
    Chaozhou
    Shantou
    Haifeng
    Johor Bahru
    Wenchang
    Haikou
    Leizhou
    Puxian Min Putian
    Xianyou
    Pinghua Nanning
    Wu Shanghai
    Suzhou
    Wuxi
    Hangzhou
    Wenzhou
    Chongming
    Danyang
    Jinhua
    Tangxi , 爾儂
    Ningbo , , 爾儂
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng
    Xiangtan
    Loudi
    Dialectal synonyms of 嬰兒 (“baby; infant”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 嬰兒, 嬰孩
    Mandarin Taiwan 嬰兒, 寶寶
    Luoyang 娃娃
    Wanrong 胎娃
    Xuzhou 小毛娃兒
    Wuhan 毛頭伢, 毛頭, 毛毛伢, 毛毛, 伢伢
    Guiyang 嫩娃娃
    Nanjing 小毛娃, 毛娃, 小寶寶
    Cantonese Guangzhou 蘇蝦仔, 阿蝦, 臊妹
    Hong Kong 蘇蝦仔, 蘇蝦, 啤啤, 啤啤仔
    Dongguan 蘇蝦仔, 啤啤, 啤啤仔
    Gan Nanchang 毛伢子
    Lichuan 毛伢崽
    Pingxiang 毛毛仔
    Hakka Meixian 孲𤘅仔
    Xingning 孲𤘅哩
    Huidong (Daling) 孲𤘅仔
    Qujiang 孲𤘅子
    Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang) 嫩仔
    Changting 孲𤘅子, 赤蝦子
    Pingyu 蝦毛子
    Wuping 孲𤘅子, 赤蝦子
    Liancheng 孲𤘅子
    Yudu 伢人子, 毛伢子
    Ruijin 孲𤘅子, 赤蝦子
    Shicheng 赤伢
    Shangyou 伢毛子
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 孲𤘅仔
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 孲𤘅仔
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 孲𤘅, 孲𤘅仔
    Dongshi (Dabu) 孲𤘅
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 孲𤘅仔, 孲𤘅
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 阿佅, 嬰仔
    Huizhou Jixi 細妹
    Jin Taiyuan 小娃娃
    Xinzhou 小娃子
    Min Bei Jian'ou 𤘅仔
    Min Dong Fuzhou 兒囝囝
    Min Nan Xiamen 嬰仔
    Quanzhou 嬰仔
    Zhangzhou 嬰仔, 嬰哥, 紅嬰仔, 紅嬰
    Taipei 嬰仔
    Kaohsiung 紅嬰仔
    Tainan 紅嬰仔
    Taichung 紅嬰仔
    Hsinchu 紅嬰仔
    Lukang 紅嬰仔
    Sanxia 紅嬰
    Yilan 紅嬰仔
    Kinmen 嬰仔
    Philippines (Manila) 嬰仔
    Haikou , intimate
    Leizhou
    Pinghua Nanning 娃娃
    Wu Shanghai 小毛頭, 小小囡, 毛毛頭
    Suzhou 小毛頭, 毛毛頭, 血泡泡
    Hangzhou 小毛頭兒, 小毛頭, 毛頭兒, 毛毛頭
    Wenzhou 娒兒, 娒娒兒
    Chongming 小小囡
    Danyang 小毛毛, 毛毛
    Jinhua 王男
    Ningbo 奶花, 小毛頭, 毛頭奶花, 孲𤘅, 抱手
    Xiang Changsha 毛毛, 毛毛它, 毛它
    Loudi 毛毛唧, 毛毛
    Dialectal synonyms of 小孩 (“child; kid”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese , ,
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 兒童, 小孩, 孩子, 小孩子, 小朋友, 小童, 孩童
    Mandarin Beijing 小孩兒
    Taiwan 小孩, 小孩子
    Tianjin 小孩兒
    Jinan 小孩兒, 孩子
    Xi'an , 碎娃
    Wuhan , 小伢
    Chengdu 娃兒, 小娃兒, 娃娃, 小娃娃, 小人
    Yangzhou 霞子, 小霞子
    Hefei 小霞子, 伢子, 小伢子
    Cantonese Guangzhou 細路, 細路仔, 細路哥, 細蚊仔
    Hong Kong 細路, 細路仔, 細路哥, 細蚊仔
    Foshan 細蚊仔, 細路仔
    Shunde 細佬哥
    Zhongshan (Shiqi) 細蚊仔
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 細路仔
    Doumen 細佬哥
    Taishan 細民仔, 細佬哥
    Kaiping (Chikan) 細民仔
    Dongguan 細蚊仔
    Shaoguan 細路哥, 細紋仔
    Yunfu 細佬哥
    Yangjiang 細文仔, 細仔
    Xinyi , 細儂
    Lianjiang 細紋仔, 細路仔
    Nanning 細鬼, 細蚊仔, 細路哥
    Wuzhou 細路仔, 細路哥, 蘇蝦仔
    Yulin 儂兒
    Danzhou 細儂
    Gan Nanchang 細人子, 細伢子
    Hakka Meixian 細人仔, 細拐仔
    Xingning 細仔子
    Huidong (Daling) 阿焦仔
    Qujiang 細人子
    Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang) 細佬仔
    Changting 細人哩
    Pingyu 細人子
    Wuping 細人子
    Liancheng 細人子
    Ninghua 大細子
    Yudu 細人子
    Ruijin 細人子
    Shicheng 大細子
    Shangyou 細伢子
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 細人仔, 細孲仔
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 細人仔, 細孲仔
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 細人仔, 細孲仔
    Dongshi (Dabu) 細人, 細孲
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 細人仔, 細子人, 細孲仔
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 細子, 細子人
    Jin Taiyuan 娃娃, 小娃娃
    Min Bei Jian'ou 囝仔人
    Min Dong Fuzhou 伲囝, 伲囝哥
    Min Nan Xiamen 囡仔, 囡仔人, 細漢囝, 細漢囡仔
    Quanzhou 囡仔, 囡仔人, 細漢囝, 細漢囡仔
    Zhangzhou 囡仔, 囡仔人, 細漢囝, 細漢囡仔
    Taipei 囡仔
    Kaohsiung 囡仔, 囡仔人, 囡仔囝
    Tainan 囡仔, 囡仔人, 囡仔囝
    Taichung 囡仔
    Hsinchu 囡仔
    Lukang 囡仔
    Sanxia 囡仔
    Yilan 囡仔
    Kinmen 囡仔
    Magong 囡仔
    Penang 囡仔, 囡仔人, 囡仔囝,
    Philippines (Manila) 囡仔
    Chaozhou 孥囝
    Shantou 孥囝
    Haikou 細囝, 孧囝
    Leizhou 儂囝
    Wu Shanghai 小囡, 小人,
    Suzhou 小幹, 小人
    Wenzhou 細兒, 小細兒, , 娒娒
    Xiang Changsha 細伢子, 細人子, 伢妹子
    Shuangfeng 細人基

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    Kanji in this term
    わし
    Hyōgaiji
    kun’yomi

    KanjiEdit

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    Usage notesEdit

    This character is seldom used in modern Japanese.

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    わし
    Hyōgaiji
    kun’yomi

    Contraction of (watashi, I, me).[1][2]

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    • (more common)

    PronounEdit

    (hiragana わし, rōmaji washi)

    1. (mainly Western Japan) I, me
    Usage notesEdit

    The term is a regular pronoun in Western Japan, used primarily by men in most regions. Depending on the region, it may be used mainly by the elderly, which is especially true for women using it, and becoming more true as usage of local variants declines in younger generations. Its use is often considered stereotypical of old people in Japanese media and is frequently used in TV shows and comics to emphasize the age of characters. However, it may also simply be used to emphasize the character as hailing from Kansai.

    More commonly spelled , or in kana to make the reading explicit.

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    かれ
    Hyōgaiji
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Compound of (ka, that, yon) +‎ (-re, nominalizing suffix for demonstratives). Found in the Man'yōshū compiled around 759.

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    • (more common)

    PronounEdit

    (hiragana かれ, rōmaji kare)

    1. (rare) third person pronoun: he, she
      1. particularly, male personal third person pronoun: he
      2. by extension from he: boyfriend
    Usage notesEdit

    Very rare spelling. See the more common spelling for more details about the term.

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (nong) (hangeul , revised nong, McCune–Reischauer nong)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (nông, nùng, noọng)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.