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See also:
U+5475, 呵
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5475

[U+5474]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5476]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 30, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 口一弓口 (RMNR), four-corner 61020, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 183, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3459
  • Dae Jaweon: page 402, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 598, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+5475

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɡ·raːlʔ
*kaːl
*kaːl, *ɡaːl
*kaːl
*kaːl
*kaːl
*kaːl
*kaːl
*kaːl
*kaːlʔ
*kaːlʔ
*kaːlʔ, *kaːnʔ
*kʰaːl, *kʰaːlʔ, *kʰaːls
*kʰaːl
*kʰaːlʔ
*kʰaːlʔ
*kʰaːlʔ, *kʰaːls
*kʰaːls, *ɡaːl
*qʰaːl, *qʰaːls
*qʰaːl
*qʰaːl
*qʰaːls, *ɡaːl, *ɡaːlʔ
*ɡaːl, *ɡaːlʔ
*ɡaːl
*ɡaːl
*ɡaːl
*ɡaːls
*qaːl
*qaːl, *qaːlʔ
*qaːl, *kʰraːls
*qaːl
娿 *qaːl, *qaːlʔ
*qaːl
*kʰraːlʔ
*qʰraːlʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *qʰaːl, *qʰaːls): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *kʰaːlʔ).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • ŏ̤ - literary;
  • hŏ̤ - vernacular (sound of laughter).
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • ho - literary;
    • o - 阿 is used in the Mainland.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (32)
    Final () (94)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /hɑ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /hɑ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /xɑ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ha/
    Li
    Rong
    /xɑ/
    Wang
    Li
    /xɑ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /xɑ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ xa ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qʰˁaj/
    English scold

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 7453
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qʰaːl/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Alternative form of (, “to berate; to scold”).
    2. to shout; to cry out
    3. to cherish; to treasure; to protect
    4. (onomatopoeia) Sound of laughing.
      呵呵  ―  Hēhē.  ―  Huh. (with falling pitch)
    5. Exclamation particle for expressing surprise.
    6. (dialectal) to smoke (tobacco)

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    Note:
    • hĕ̤ - vernacular;
    • hŏ̤ - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (32)
    Final () (94)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /hɑH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /hɑH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /xɑH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /haH/
    Li
    Rong
    /xɑH/
    Wang
    Li
    /xɑH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /xɑH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 7456
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qʰaːls/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to expel breath; to slowly breathe out

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 3Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Used in transcription.

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 4Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Alternative form of (, “to bend over”).

    Pronunciation 5Edit


    Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Alternative form of (“exclamation particle”).

    Pronunciation 6Edit

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Alternative form of (“modal particle”).

    Pronunciation 7Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (dialectal) to cheat; to deceive

    Pronunciation 8Edit

      This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!
    Particularly: “Cantonese, /ho/, high-falling(?)”

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (Cantonese) Used to point out something that one would like confirmation for.
      OK [Cantonese]  ―  dou1 ou1 kei1 ho1 [Jyutping]  ―  should be OK, yeah?
      曾江示意,謝賢:「唔會打吓?」隨即巴掌曾江 [Cantonese, trad.]
      曾江示意,谢贤:“唔会打吓?”随即巴掌曾江 [Cantonese, simp.]
      From: [1]
      Cang4 Gong1 zik1 si6 ji3 bat1 wui5 zoi3 gong2, Ze6 Jin4 zoi3 syut3: “Nei5 m4 wui5 gwaai3 ngo5 gaa3 ho1? Daa2 haa2 dou1 m4 wui5 gwaai3 gaa3 ho1?” Ceoi4 zik1 jat1 baa1 zoeng2 daa2 lok6 Cang4 Gong1 dou6. [Jyutping]
      Tsang Kong immediately displayed a lack of willingness to continue talking, so Tse Yin said: "You won't blame me, right? You wont't blame me if I give you a slap, right?" and immediately gave Tsang Kong a slap on the cheek.

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

    1. scold, disapprove

    ReadingsEdit

    • On (unclassified): (ka)
    • Kun: しかる (shikaru, 呵る); わらう (warau, 呵う)

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (ga) (hangeul , revised ga, McCune–Reischauer ka)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (ha, , hả, , khá, khà)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.