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See also:
U+5475, 呵
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5475

[U+5474]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5476]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 30 +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 口一弓口 (RMNR), four-corner 61020, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 183, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3459
  • Dae Jaweon: page 402, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 598, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+5475

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɡ·raːlʔ
*kaːl
*kaːl, *ɡaːl
*kaːl
*kaːl
*kaːl
*kaːl
*kaːl
*kaːl
*kaːlʔ
*kaːlʔ
*kaːlʔ, *kaːnʔ
*kʰaːl, *kʰaːlʔ, *kʰaːls
*kʰaːl
*kʰaːlʔ
*kʰaːlʔ
*kʰaːlʔ, *kʰaːls
*kʰaːls, *ɡaːl
*qʰaːl, *qʰaːls
*qʰaːl
*qʰaːl
*qʰaːls, *ɡaːl, *ɡaːlʔ
*ɡaːl, *ɡaːlʔ
*ɡaːl
*ɡaːl
*ɡaːl
*ɡaːls
*qaːl
*qaːl, *qaːlʔ
*qaːl, *kʰraːls
*qaːl
娿 *qaːl, *qaːlʔ
*qaːl
*kʰraːlʔ
*qʰraːlʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *qʰaːl, *qʰaːls): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *kʰaːlʔ).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • ŏ̤ - literary;
  • hŏ̤ - vernacular (sound of laughter).
Note:
  • ho - literary;
  • o - 阿 is used in the Mainland.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (32)
Final () (94)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/hɑ/
Pan
Wuyun
/hɑ/
Shao
Rongfen
/xɑ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ha/
Li
Rong
/xɑ/
Wang
Li
/xɑ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xɑ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ xa ›
Old
Chinese
/*qʰˤaj/
English scold

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 7453
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qʰaːl/
Notes

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Alternative form of (, “to berate; to scold”).
  2. to shout; to cry out
  3. to cherish; to treasure; to protect
  4. (onomatopoeia) Sound of laughing.
  5. Exclamation particle for expressing surprise.
  6. (dialectal) to smoke (tobacco)

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 2Edit


Note:
  • hĕ̤ - vernacular;
  • hŏ̤ - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (32)
Final () (94)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/hɑH/
Pan
Wuyun
/hɑH/
Shao
Rongfen
/xɑH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/haH/
Li
Rong
/xɑH/
Wang
Li
/xɑH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xɑH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 7456
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qʰaːls/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to expel breath; to slowly breathe out

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 3Edit

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Used in transcriptions.

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 4Edit

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Alternative form of (, “to bend over”).

Pronunciation 5Edit


Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Alternative form of (“exclamation particle”).

Pronunciation 6Edit

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Alternative form of (“modal particle”).

Pronunciation 7Edit


DefinitionsEdit

  1. (dialectal) to cheat; to deceive

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. scold, disapprove

ReadingsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(ga) (hangeul , revised ga, McCune-Reischauer ka)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(ha, , hả, , khá, khà)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.