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See also:
U+5475, 呵
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5475

[U+5474]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5476]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 30 +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 口一弓口 (RMNR), four-corner 61020, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 183, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3459
  • Dae Jaweon: page 402, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 598, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+5475

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɡ·raːlʔ
*kaːl
*kaːl, *ɡaːl
*kaːl
*kaːl
*kaːl
*kaːl
*kaːl
*kaːl
*kaːlʔ
*kaːlʔ
*kaːlʔ, *kaːnʔ
*kʰaːl, *kʰaːlʔ, *kʰaːls
*kʰaːl
*kʰaːlʔ
*kʰaːlʔ
*kʰaːlʔ, *kʰaːls
*kʰaːls, *ɡaːl
*qʰaːl, *qʰaːls
*qʰaːl
*qʰaːl
*qʰaːls, *ɡaːl, *ɡaːlʔ
*ɡaːl, *ɡaːlʔ
*ɡaːl
*ɡaːl
*ɡaːl
*ɡaːls
*qaːl
*qaːl, *qaːlʔ
*qaːl, *kʰraːls
*qaːl
娿 *qaːl, *qaːlʔ
*qaːl
*kʰraːlʔ
*qʰraːlʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *qʰaːl, *qʰaːls): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *kʰaːlʔ).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • ŏ̤ - literary;
  • hŏ̤ - vernacular (sound of laughter).
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • ho - literary;
    • o - 阿 is used in the Mainland.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (32)
    Final () (94)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /hɑ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /hɑ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /xɑ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ha/
    Li
    Rong
    /xɑ/
    Wang
    Li
    /xɑ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /xɑ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ xa ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qʰˤaj/
    English scold

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 7453
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qʰaːl/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Alternative form of (, “to berate; to scold”).
    2. to shout; to cry out
    3. to cherish; to treasure; to protect
    4. (onomatopoeia) Sound of laughing.
    5. Exclamation particle for expressing surprise.
    6. (dialectal) to smoke (tobacco)

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    Note:
    • hĕ̤ - vernacular;
    • hŏ̤ - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (32)
    Final () (94)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /hɑH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /hɑH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /xɑH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /haH/
    Li
    Rong
    /xɑH/
    Wang
    Li
    /xɑH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /xɑH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 7456
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qʰaːls/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to expel breath; to slowly breathe out

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 3Edit

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Used in transcriptions.

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 4Edit

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Alternative form of (, “to bend over”).

    Pronunciation 5Edit


    Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Alternative form of (“exclamation particle”).

    Pronunciation 6Edit

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Alternative form of (“modal particle”).

    Pronunciation 7Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (dialectal) to cheat; to deceive

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

    1. scold, disapprove

    ReadingsEdit


    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (ga) (hangeul , revised ga, McCune-Reischauer ka)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (ha, , hả, , khá, khà)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.