mix together; peace; harmony; and; with; union; cap (a poem); respond in singing; soft; warm
still; yet; to value; to esteem
|simp. and trad.
Borrowed from Prakrit uvajjhāa, uajjhāa, ujjhāa, ojjhāa, ojhāa, ujjhā, ujjha (“teacher; religious teacher”), all ultimately derived from Sanskrit उपाध्याय (upādhyāya, “teacher; preceptor; spiritual adviser”) (Chu, 2002). The use of 上 or 尚 /d͡ʑɨɐŋH/ invalid IPA characters (H) to render Prakrit jjhāa /d̚d͡ʑʱɑː.ɐ/ was probably influenced by:
- The loss of the nasal –ŋ coda in the ancient northwestern dialect of Middle Chinese, and
- The use of phono-semantic matching in transcription, with 尚 taken to mean “noble; virtuous; to revere” (idem).
Compare Pali upajjhāya, upajjhā, upajjha (“spiritual teacher or preceptor”), Hindi ओझा (ojhā, “exorcist”), Sindhi واڍو / वाढो (vāḍho, “carpenter”), Assamese ওজা (ûza, “one well-versed in any art; teacher; sorcerer”), Bengali ওঝা (ojha, “snake-charmer; exorcist”), Oriya ଓଝା (ojhā, “teacher; one who cures snake-bites; wizard; exorcist; title of blacksmiths and carpenters”), Malayalam വാധ്യായന് (vādhyāyan, “teacher; family priest”), Tamil வாத்தியார் (vāttiyār, “teacher; family priest; one who trains actors and dancers”).
Alternative theories, such as those put forth by Tang Dynasty monks Xuanying and Huiyuan, hypothesise that this was borrowed from Khotanese or language of the Shule Kingdom, but these appear less likely.
- Gan (Wiktionary): uo4 song
- Jin (Wiktionary): hue1 son3
- Min Dong (BUC): hù-siông / huò-siông
- Min Nan (POJ): hê-siūⁿ / hêr-siūⁿ / hêr-siǔⁿ / hôe-siōⁿ / hôe-siūⁿ
- Wu (Wiktionary): hhu zaan (T3)
- Xiang (Wiktionary): ho2 shan4
- Min Dong
- Min Nan
- (Hokkien: Xiamen, Taipei, Magong, Hsinchu)
- (Hokkien: Quanzhou, Sanxia, Kinmen, Hsinchu)
- (Hokkien: Lukang)
- (Hokkien: Zhangzhou, Tainan)
- (Hokkien: Kaohsiung, Yilan, Taichung)
Middle Chinese: /ɦuɑ d͡ʑɨɐŋH/
- (more faithful transcription in Tang Dynasty) 鄔波馱耶／邬波驮耶
- (Buddhist monk): 僧 (sēng), 比丘 (bǐqiū), 僧人 (sēngrén)
|Kanji in this term|
|Grade: 3||Grade: S|
- Buddhist priest
- a Buddhist priest who is the head of a temple or in a higher rank.
- title and style for high ranked Buddhist priests.
- a Buddhist priest master who gives instructions to other priests.
- (a Buddhist priest who is the head of the temple or in a higher rank): 住職 (jūshoku)
- (a title for Buddhist priests): 和上 (wajō), 和闍 (wajō)