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See also: 和尙

Contents

ChineseEdit

 
mix together; peace; harmony; and; with; union; cap (a poem); respond in singing; soft; warm
 
still; yet; to value; to esteem
simp. and trad.
(和尚)
alt. forms

EtymologyEdit

“Senior monk who holds the precepts-granting ceremony; preceptor” > “high priest; head monk” > “Buddhist monks in general”. First attested in the 3rd–4th centuries, as 和上.

Borrowed from Prakrit uvajjhāa, uajjhāa, ujjhāa, ojjhāa, ojhāa, ujjhā, ujjha (“teacher; religious teacher”), all ultimately derived from Sanskrit उपाध्याय (upādhyāya, teacher; preceptor; spiritual adviser) (Chu, 2002). The use of (MC d͡ʑɨɐŋH) or (MC d͡ʑɨɐŋH) to render Prakrit jjhāa /d̚d͡ʑʱɑː.ɐ/ was probably influenced by:

  1. The loss of the nasal –ŋ coda in the ancient northwestern dialect of Middle Chinese, and
  2. The use of phono-semantic matching in transcription, with taken to mean “noble; virtuous; to revere” (idem).

Compare Pali upajjhāya, upajjhā, upajjha (spiritual teacher or preceptor), Hindi ओझा (ojhā, exorcist), Sindhi واڍو / वाढो (vāḍho, carpenter), Assamese ওজা (ûza, one well-versed in any art; teacher; sorcerer), Bengali ওঝা (ojha, snake-charmer; exorcist), Oriya ଓଝା (ojhā, teacher; one who cures snake-bites; wizard; exorcist; title of blacksmiths and carpenters), Malayalam വാധ്യായന്‍ (vādhyāyan‍, teacher; family priest), Tamil வாத்தியார் (vāttiyār, teacher; family priest; one who trains actors and dancers).

Alternative theories, such as those put forth by Tang Dynasty monks Xuanying and Huiyuan, hypothesise that this was borrowed from Khotanese or language of the Shule Kingdom, but these appear less likely.

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (33) (25)
Final () (95) (105)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed Open
Division () I III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦuɑ/ /d͡ʑɨɐŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦuɑ/ /d͡ʑiɐŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣuɑ/ /d͡ʑiɑŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦwa/ /d͡ʑɨaŋH/
Li
Rong
/ɣuɑ/ /ʑiaŋH/
Wang
Li
/ɣuɑ/ /ʑĭaŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣuɑ/ /ʑi̯aŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
huó shàng

NounEdit

和尚

  1. (Buddhism) preceptor; high priest; head monk
  2. (by extension) Buddhist monks in general

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic (和尚):
  • Japanese:  () (しょう) (oshō);  () (しょう) (kashō);  () (じょう) (wajō)
  • Korean: 화상 (和尙, hwasang)
  • Vietnamese: hoà thượng (和尚)

JapaneseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
しょう
Grade: S
on’yomi

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

和尚 (hiragana おしょう, rōmaji oshō, historical hiragana をしやう)

  1. (Zen or Pure Land Buddhism) Buddhist priest
    1. a Buddhist priest who is the head of a temple or in a higher rank.
    2. title and style for high ranked Buddhist priests.
    3. a Buddhist priest master who gives instructions to other priests.
SynonymsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
しょう
Grade: S
on’yomi

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

和尚 (hiragana かしょう, rōmaji kashō, historical hiragana くわしやう)

  1. (Tendai or Kegon Buddhism) preceptor; high priest

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
しょう > じょう
Grade: S
on’yomi

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

和尚 (hiragana わじょう, rōmaji wajō, historical hiragana わじやう)

  1. (Shingon, Hosso, Ritsu or Shin Buddhism) preceptor; high priest

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9


VietnameseEdit

Hán tự in this word

NounEdit

和尚

  1. Hán tự form of hoà thượng, “senior Buddhist monk”