Chinese

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Etymology 1

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big; great; huge
big; great; huge; large; major; wide; deep; oldest; eldest; doctor
 
man; person; people
simp. and trad.
(大人)
alternative forms 大儂大侬 Min Nan
anagram 人大

Pronunciation

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Noun

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大人

  1. adult; grown-up
    萬聖節裝扮不是大人專利那些糖果小孩裝扮可以十分出色 [MSC, trad.]
    万圣节装扮不是大人专利那些糖果小孩装扮可以十分出色 [MSC, simp.]
    Wànshèngjié zhuāngbàn bùshì dàrén de zhuānlì, nàxiē pāi mén tǎo tángguǒ de xiǎohái zhuāngbàn yě kěyǐ shífēn chūsè! [Pinyin]
    Halloween costumes are not just for adults - the costumes of children who ask for candy can also be extraordinary!
    大人大人 [Hokkien]  ―  tńg tāi-jîn [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to grow up into an adult
Synonyms
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Antonyms
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Etymology 2

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big; great; huge
big; great; huge; large; major; wide; deep; oldest; eldest; doctor
 
man; person; people
simp. and trad.
(大人)
alternative forms 大儂大侬 (dua7 nang5) Teochew
anagram 人大
address towards Japanese officials; "police officer"
Borrowed from Japanese 大人 (taijin), from Chinese 大人 (dàrén).

Pronunciation

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Note: dai6 ring5 - address towards Japanese officials.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2 1/1
Initial () (7) (7) (38)
Final () (25) (94) (43)
Tone (調) Departing (H) Departing (H) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open Open
Division () I I III
Fanqie
Baxter dajH daH nyin
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/dɑiH/ /dɑH/ /ȵiɪn/
Pan
Wuyun
/dɑiH/ /dɑH/ /ȵin/
Shao
Rongfen
/dɑiH/ /dɑH/ /ȵʑjen/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/dajH/ /daH/ /ȵin/
Li
Rong
/dɑiH/ /dɑH/ /ȵiĕn/
Wang
Li
/dɑiH/ /dɑH/ /ȵʑĭĕn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/dʱɑiH/ /dʱɑH/ /ȵʑi̯ĕn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
dài duò rén
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
daai6 do6 jan4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
rén
Middle
Chinese
‹ daH › ‹ dajH › ‹ nyin ›
Old
Chinese
/*lˁat-s/ (MC F!) /*lˁa[t]-s/ /*ni[ŋ]/
English big big (other) person

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2 1/1
No. 1934 1939 10800
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*daːds/ /*daːds/ /*njin/

Noun

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大人

  1. (archaic) person of high rank (such as a ruler or noble)
    Antonym: 小人 (xiǎorén)
  2. (honorific) Your Excellency; His Excellency (form of address to a higher-up)
    Synonym: 閣下阁下 (géxià)
    法官大人  ―  fǎguān dàrén  ―  Your Honour
  3. (historical, Taiwanese Hokkien and Japanese-occupied Shantou Teochew) An address used by ordinary citizens to address Japanese occupation officials: sir
  4. (Taiwanese Hokkien, dated or regional) police officer
  5. (Xiamen and Quanzhou Hokkien, religion) paper person, used as a scapegoat
Synonyms
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  • (police officer):
Derived terms
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Descendants

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Sino-Xenic (大人):

References

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Japanese

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
おとな
Grade: 1 Grade: 1
jukujikun

Appears in sources from the Heian period. Derivation unknown.

Alternative forms

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  • 乙名 (only for the "leader" senses)

Pronunciation

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Noun

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大人(おとな) (otona

  1. an adult, a grown-up
    大人(おとな)(へ)の(かい)(だん)のぼる
    otona (e) no kaidan o noboru
    to ascend the staircase of (/towards) [being an] adult: to mature
    • 2010 December 8, Hideaki Sorachi, “(だい)(さん)(びゃく)()(じゅう)()(くん) ()()あることは(さん)()ある [Lesson 322: Twice, Thrice That There Are]”, in (ぎん)(たま) [Silver Soul], volume 37 (fiction), Tokyo: Shueisha, →ISBN:
      まずはこのローションをかぶってだな
      Mazu wa kono rōshon o kabutte da na
      First we slap on some lotion
      ちょっと()てぇぇぇ‼ それどこの大人(おとな)のプールぅ⁉
      Chotto mateeee‼ Sore doko no otona no pūrū⁉
      Hold o-o-o-on!! Are you tryna turn this place into an adult pool!?
  2. (uncommon, possibly archaic) a leader:
    1. an elder of a group or community
    2. in the late Muromachi period, the representative of a village or guild
    3. the head lady-in-waiting
    4. one's wife
    5. in the Edo period, a kind of civil servant working in Nagasaki
    6. the head servant

Adjective

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大人(おとな) (otona-na (adnominal 大人(おとな) (otona na), adverbial 大人(おとな) (otona ni))

  1. mature; grown-up
    大人(おとな)(かん)(みせ)
    otona na kanji no o-mise
    shop that has a mature atmosphere
    大人(おとな)(たい)(おう)
    otona na taiō
    mature response to the situation
  2. adult; sexual

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
うし
Grade: 1 Grade: 1
jukujikun

From Old Japanese.[3] Appears in the Nihon Shoki, completed in 720 CE. Derivation unknown.

Alternative forms

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Pronunciation

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Noun

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大人(うし) (ushi

  1. (honorific) a lord, a landowner
  2. an honorific form of reference for a scholar or teacher, or one's own father
  3. an honorific form of reference for the addressee

Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term
たい
Grade: 1
じん
Grade: 1
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese 大人 (dɑiH ȵʑjen, literally big, great + person). Compare modern Cantonese reading daai6 jan4, Hokkien tāi-jîn.

The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(たい)(じん) (taijin

  1. a large person
  2. a giant
  3. an adult
  4. a person of high rank, a ruler or noble
  5. an honorific form of reference for a scholar or teacher, or one's own parent
  6. a daimyo
Synonyms
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Etymology 4

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Kanji in this term
だい
Grade: 1
にん
Grade: 1
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese 大人 (dɑiH ȵiɪn, literally big, great + person). Compare modern Hakka reading thai-ngìn.

The goon reading, so likely an earlier borrowing.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(だい)(にん) (dainin

  1. an adult, a grown-up
  2. (Buddhism) the Buddhas and bodhisattvas

References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN
  3. ^ Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

Korean

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Hanja in this term

Noun

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大人 (daein) (hangeul 대인)

  1. Hanja form? of 대인 (adult).

Okinawan

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Kanji in this term
うふ
Grade: 1
っちゅ
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Etymology 1

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From Proto-Ryukyuan *opopito.

From (ufu-, big) +‎ (tchu, person).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(うふ)(っちゅ) (ufutchu

  1. adult
    (うふ)(っちゅ)(くば)
    ufutchu nu kubai
    treatment of an adult

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
Grade: 1 Grade: 1
irregular

Cognate with Japanese 大人 (otona). Presumably a borrowing, as no other Ryukyuan cognates exist.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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大人(うとぅな) (utuna

  1. (literary) adult
    (いち)のかいぢ()かいぢ()でど(あす)びゆたる何時(いつ)()(さと)大人(おとな)なたが
    ichi nu keji ni ni keji yudidu ashibyutaru ichi nu ma ni satu ya utuna nataga
    You used to play around by [counting stones and] counting one to two times, but when is the time that you have became an adult?

References

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  • うふっちゅ【大人】” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.
  • ウフッチュ” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary (archived; reopens 2024).(permanent dead link)
  • ウトゥナ” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary (archived; reopens 2024).(permanent dead link)

Vietnamese

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chữ Hán Nôm in this term

Noun

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大人

  1. chữ Hán form of đại nhân (noble man).