Chinese

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big; great; huge
big; great; huge; large; major; wide; deep; oldest; eldest; doctor
 
statesman; vassal; courtier
statesman; vassal; courtier; minister; official
 
simp. and trad.
(大臣)

Pronunciation

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Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2 1/1
Initial () (7) (7) (25)
Final () (25) (94) (43)
Tone (調) Departing (H) Departing (H) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open Open
Division () I I III
Fanqie
Baxter dajH daH dzyin
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/dɑiH/ /dɑH/ /d͡ʑiɪn/
Pan
Wuyun
/dɑiH/ /dɑH/ /d͡ʑin/
Shao
Rongfen
/dɑiH/ /dɑH/ /d͡ʑjen/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/dajH/ /daH/ /d͡ʑin/
Li
Rong
/dɑiH/ /dɑH/ /ʑiĕn/
Wang
Li
/dɑiH/ /dɑH/ /ʑĭĕn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/dʱɑiH/ /dʱɑH/ /ʑi̯ĕn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
dài duò chén
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
daai6 do6 san4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
chén
Middle
Chinese
‹ daH › ‹ dajH › ‹ dzyin ›
Old
Chinese
/*lˁat-s/ (MC F!) /*lˁa[t]-s/ /*[ɡ]i[ŋ]/
English big big slave, subject

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2 1/1
No. 1934 1939 1342
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1 2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*daːds/ /*daːds/ /*ɡiŋ/
Notes

使

Noun

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大臣

  1. minister (of an imperial regime, cabinet, etc.); high-level official (of a monarchy); secretary; chancellor
    Synonym: 部長部长 (bùzhǎng) (for non-monarchies)

Derived terms

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Descendants

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Sino-Xenic (大臣):

Japanese

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
だい
Grade: 1
じん
Grade: 4
goon
 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

From Middle Chinese 大臣 (MC dajH dzyin).

The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound) reading, so likely the earlier borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(だい)(じん) (daijin

  1. (politics) a government minister of Japan or ancient China
  2. (politics, historical) a senior minister or superior in the 太政官 (Daijō-kan, Great Council of State), namely the 太政大臣 (daijō-daijin), 左大臣 (sadaijin), 右大臣 (udaijin), and 内大臣 (naidaijin)
Derived terms
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See also
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Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
たい
Grade: 1
しん
Grade: 4
kan’on

From Middle Chinese 大臣 (MC dajH dzyin).

The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) reading, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(たい)(しん) (taishin

  1. (historical) a major retainer
    Antonym: 小臣 (shōshin)
  2. (historical) Same as だいじん (daijin) above

Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term
だい
Grade: 1
じん
Grade: 4
goon
For pronunciation and definitions of 大臣 – see the following entry: 大尽

(The following entry is uncreated: 大尽.)

Etymology 4

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Kanji in this term
おとど
Grade: 1 Grade: 4
jukujikun
For pronunciation and definitions of 大臣 – see the following entry: 大殿

(The following entry is uncreated: 大殿.)

Derived terms

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Etymology 5

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Kanji in this term
おお
Grade: 1
おみ
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

From (ō-, big, great) +‎ (omi, vassal).

Noun

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(おお)(おみ) (ōomiおほおみ (ofoomi)?

  1. (politics, historical) a chief consul in the ancient Yamato court, equivalent to and replaced by 左大臣 (sadaijin) and 右大臣 (udaijin) during the Taika Reforms
Quotations
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For quotations using this term, see Citations:大臣.

Derived terms
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See also
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Etymology 6

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Kanji in this term
おおいもうちぎみ
Grade: 1 Grade: 4
jukujikun

Compound of (ōi-, prefix of superiority) +‎ 公卿 (mōchigimi, senior court official).

Noun

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大臣(おおいもうちぎみ) (ōimōchigimiおほいまうちぎみ (ofoimautigimi)?

  1. (politics, historical, archaic) a senior minister or superior in the 太政官 (Ōimatsurigoto no Tsukasa, Great Council of State)
Quotations
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For quotations using this term, see Citations:大臣.

Derived terms
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Etymology 7

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Kanji in this term
おおまえつぎみ
Grade: 1 Grade: 4
jukujikun

Shift from Old Japanese 大臣 (opomape1tuki1mi1).

Equivalent to (ō-, big, great) +‎ 公卿 (maetsugimi, ancient pronunciation of mōchigimi, “senior court official who serves before the Emperor).

Noun

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大臣(おおまえつぎみ) (ōmaetsugimiおほまへつぎみ (ofomafetugimi)?

  1. (politics, historical, archaic) a senior minister or superior in the 太政官 (Ōimatsurigoto no Tsukasa, Great Council of State)
Derived terms
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References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Old Japanese

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Etymology 1

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From (opo-, big, great) +‎ 公卿 (mape1tuki1mi1, senior court official).

Noun

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大臣 (opomape1tuki1mi1) (kana おほまへつきみ)

  1. a court official who serves near the emperor
Quotations
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For quotations using this term, see Citations:大臣.

Derived terms
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Descendants
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  • Japanese: 大臣 (ōmaetsugimi)

Etymology 2

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From (opo-, big, great) +‎ 公卿 (matiki1mi1, senior court official).

Alternatively, a shift from opomape1tuki1mi1 above.

Noun

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大臣 (opomatiki1mi1) (kana おほまちきみ)

  1. (politics) a chief consul in the ancient Yamato court, equivalent to and replaced by 左大臣 (sadaijin) and 右大臣 (udaijin) during the Taika Reforms
Quotations
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For quotations using this term, see Citations:大臣.

Descendants
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  • Japanese: 大臣 (ōmachigimi), in modern dictionaries

Etymology 3

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From (opo-, big, great) +‎ (omi1, a kabane title).

The final -o of opo- was lost due to haplology.

Noun

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大臣 (opomi1) (kana おほみ)

  1. a pre-Taika Reform (kabane, hereditary title) given to a member of a powerful clan, ranked higher than an (omi1)
Quotations
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For quotations using this term, see Citations:大臣.

See also

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