See also: and

Contents

TranslingualEdit

EtymologyEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script

× 3, lewd behaviour, vice

Han characterEdit

(radical 38 +6, 9 strokes, cangjie input 女女女 (VVV), four-corner 40444, composition)

  1. adultery
  2. debauchery
  3. debauch
  4. wrong, wicked, immoral
  5. rape

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 260, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6217
  • Dae Jaweon: page 526, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1048, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+59E6

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

PronunciationEdit

Note: This character is used as a substitute for Min Nan kàn, which may be etymologically unrelated.



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕian⁵⁵/
Harbin /t͡ɕian⁴⁴/
Tianjin /t͡ɕian²¹/
Jinan /t͡ɕiã²¹³/
Qingdao /t͡ɕiã²¹³/
Zhengzhou /t͡ɕian²⁴/
Xi'an /t͡ɕiã²¹/
Xining /t͡ɕiã⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕian⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕiɛ̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕian⁴⁴/
Wuhan /t͡ɕiɛn⁵⁵/
Chengdu /t͡ɕian⁵⁵/
Guiyang /t͡ɕian⁵⁵/
Kunming /t͡ɕiɛ̃⁴⁴/
Nanjing /t͡ɕien³¹/
Hefei /t͡ɕiĩ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕie¹¹/
Pingyao /t͡ɕiɑŋ¹³/
Hohhot /t͡ɕie³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ke⁵³/
Suzhou /t͡ɕiɪ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /t͡ɕiẽ̞³³/
Wenzhou /ka³³/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕie³¹/
/kɛ³¹/
Tunxi /kɔ¹¹/ 強~
/t͡siɛ¹¹/ ~賊
Xiang Changsha /kan³³/
Xiangtan /kan³³/
Gan Nanchang /kan⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /kian⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /kien²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /kan⁵³/
Nanning /kan⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /kan⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kan⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kaŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kaiŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kaŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /kaŋ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (69)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kˠan/
Pan
Wuyun
/kᵚan/
Shao
Rongfen
/kɐn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kaɨn/
Li
Rong
/kan/
Wang
Li
/kan/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kan/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jiān
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jiān
Middle
Chinese
‹ kæn ›
Old
Chinese
/*[k]ˤran/
English wicked(ness)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 6027
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kraːn/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. extra-marital affair

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Kanji in this term
かん
Hyōgaiji
on'yomi

EtymologyEdit

From Middle Chinese ‎(kæn).

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

AdjectiveEdit

‎(-na inflection, hiragana かん, romaji kan)

  1. wicked

InflectionEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana かん, romaji kan)

  1. wickedness, wicked person

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(gan) (hangeul , revised gan, McCune-Reischauer kan, Yale kan)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

CompoundsEdit


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(gian)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
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