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U+5B54, 孔
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5B54

[U+5B53]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5B55]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 39, +1, 4 strokes, cangjie input 弓木山 (NDU), four-corner 12410, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 277, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6933
  • Dae Jaweon: page 544, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1008, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+5B54

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*qʰloːʔ, *qʰloːs
*kʰloːŋʔ

Bronze inscriptions: Ideogrammic compound (會意): 丿 (opening) +  (child) – opening in the skull of a newborn, i.e. fontanelle.

EtymologyEdit

"hole"
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *(g/k)uŋ (hole; orifice; inner part). (OC *kʰloːŋʔ, “hole”) is probably the endoactive derivation of (OC *kʰoːŋ, “hollow; empty”) (Schuessler, 2007). Cognate with Tibetan ཁུང (khung, hole), Jingpho ladi hku (lədî hkū, nostril), Chepang घाङ्‌ (gʰaŋ, hole), Burmese အခေါင် (a.hkaung, hollow place; cavity), Naxi kho³³ (cave; hole; pit) (STEDT).

"peacock": (This etymology is missing. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Compare Reconstruction:Proto-Vietic/k-voːŋ”)

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • kháng - vernacular;
  • khóng - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (29)
    Final () (1)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kʰuŋX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʰuŋX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kʰuŋX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kʰəwŋX/
    Li
    Rong
    /kʰuŋX/
    Wang
    Li
    /kʰuŋX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kʰuŋX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    kǒng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    kǒng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ khuwngX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[k]ʰˁoŋʔ/
    English (surname)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 7489
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰloːŋʔ/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. hole; aperture; opening
    2. Classifier for cave dwellings, oil wells, etc.
    3. large
    4. fine
    5. very
    6. peacock
    7. A surname​.
    8. (specifically) Short for 孔子 (Kǒngzǐ, “Confucius”).

    SynonymsEdit

    • (hole):
    Dialectal synonyms of (“hole”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese , ,
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) , , 孔洞, 空洞, 空穴
    Mandarin Beijing 窟窿
    Jinan 窟窿
    Xi'an 窟窿子, 窟窿
    Wuhan 窟窿, 窟眼, 洞洞,
    Chengdu 窟窿, 洞洞,
    Yangzhou
    Hefei 窟窿,
    Cantonese Guangzhou 窿, 咕窿
    Hong Kong 窿, 咕窿
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian 窿仔, 窿空仔
    Jin Taiyuan 窟窿, 窟子
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou 空空
    Min Nan Xiamen , 空口
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou 空口
    Taipei
    Philippines (Manila)
    Chaozhou
    Wu Suzhou
    Wenzhou , , 窟窿
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng 眼貢,
    • (Confucius):

    See alsoEdit

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (gong)

    • Eumhun:
      • Sound (hangeul): (revised: gong, McCune–Reischauer: kong)
      • Name (hangeul): 구멍
    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (khổng, hỏng, hổng, khỏng, khủng)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.