U+5B54, 孔
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5B54

[U+5B53]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5B55]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 39, +1, 4 strokes, cangjie input 弓木山 (NDU), four-corner 12410, composition )

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 277, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6933
  • Dae Jaweon: page 544, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1008, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+5B54

Chinese

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simp. and trad.

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     

Bronze inscriptions: Ideogrammic compound (會意会意) : 丿 (opening) + (child) – opening in the skull of a newborn, i.e. fontanelle.

Etymology

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"hole"
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *(g/k)uŋ (hole; orifice; inner part). (OC *kʰloːŋʔ, “hole”) is probably the endoactive derivation of (OC *kʰoːŋ, “hollow; empty”) (Schuessler, 2007). Cognate with Tibetan ཁུང (khung, hole), Jingpho ladi hku (lədî hkū, nostril), Chepang घाङ् (gʰaŋ, hole), Burmese အခေါင်း (a.hkaung:, hollow place; cavity), Naxi kho³³ (cave; hole; pit) (STEDT).
"peacock"
Starostin reconstructs (OC *khōŋ) and compares it to Proto-Vietic *k-voːŋ. Compare also Semai kuwok, Semnam kwɔːŋ.

Pronunciation

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Note:
  • kháng - vernacular;
  • khóng - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (29)
Final () (1)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter khuwngX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kʰuŋX/
Pan
Wuyun
/kʰuŋX/
Shao
Rongfen
/kʰuŋX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kʰəwŋX/
Li
Rong
/kʰuŋX/
Wang
Li
/kʰuŋX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kʰuŋX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
kǒng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
hung2
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
kǒng
Middle
Chinese
‹ khuwngX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[k]ʰˁoŋʔ/
English (surname)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 7489
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kʰloːŋʔ/
Notes

Definitions

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  1. hole; aperture; opening
      ―  kǒng  ―  nostril
  2. classifier for cave dwellings, oil wells, etc..
  3. (literary, for irrigation, drainage) ditch; trench; canal; channel
  4. (literary, or in compounds) profound; far-reaching
  5. (literary, or in compounds) unimpeded; unblocked
  6. (literary, or in compounds) large
  7. (literary, or in compounds) fine
  8. (literary, or in compounds) very; extremely
  9. (literary, or in compounds) peacock; peafowl
  10. a surname
      ―  Kǒng Xiángxī  ―  H. H. Kung (Chinese banker and politician)
  11. (specifically) Short for 孔子 (Kǒngzǐ, “Confucius”).
      ―  Kǒng  ―  worship of Confucius
      ―  pī Lín pī Kǒng  ―  (historical) Criticize Lin Biao and Confucius movement
  12. (Quanzhou Hokkien) classifier for partitioned grid units in a tool.

Synonyms

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  • (hole):
  • (very):
  • (peacock): 孔雀 (kǒngquè)
  • (Confucius):

Compounds

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References

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(Jōyō kanji)

  1. cavity

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology

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Kanji in this term
あな
Grade: S
kun'yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
あな6
[noun] hole
[noun] opening, aperture
[noun] pit
[noun] cave, cavern
[noun] lair, den, burrow
[noun] loss, deficit
[noun] flaw, defect
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Korean

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Hanja

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(eumhun 구멍 (gumeong gong))

  1. Hanja form? of (opening, hole).

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: khổng, hỏng, hổng, khỏng, khủng

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.