See also:
gw u5b78.svg
U+5B78, 學
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5B78

[U+5B77]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5B79]

TranslingualEdit

Japanese
Simplified
Traditional
Stroke order
 
Stroke order
(alternative)
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 39, +13, 16 strokes, cangjie input 竹月弓木 (HBND), four-corner 77407, composition𦥯)

Derived charactersEdit

Related charactersEdit

Further readingEdit

  • KangXi: page 280, character 28
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7033
  • Dae Jaweon: page 549, character 27
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1019, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+5B78

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp. *
alternative forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
             

Ancient forms: , . The former is constructed from the skeleton of (“to teach”) with the addition of two extra components: 1) a 𦥑 component around the top-left part, in this case signifying mingling hands (“hands-on learning”); 2) a (“cover”) over (“child”), representing the cover of a building or school, i.e. the child learns in a roofed place. Shuowen regards 𦥑 as the phonetic component in the character, which may be true according to some Old Chinese reconstructions such as that of Pan Wuyun's, though probably not others. See for more. The earliest structure may suggest its relationship with , with reconstruction *rug.

EtymologyEdit

May be an endopassive derivation of (OC *kruːɡs, *kruːɡ, “to awake, get insight”). Ultimately from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kruk (to rouse; to awaken; to disturb).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • ò̤ - vernacular;
  • hă - literary.
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • ŏ̤h - vernacular;
    • hŏk - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • o̍h - vernacular;
    • ha̍k - literary.
    Note:
    • oh8 - vernacular;
    • hag8 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 5hhoq - vernacular;
    • 5hhiaq - literary.
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ɕyɛ³⁵/
    Harbin /ɕiau²⁴/
    /ɕyɛ²⁴/
    Tianjin /ɕiɑu⁴⁵/
    /ɕye⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ɕyə⁴²/
    Qingdao /ɕyə⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ɕyo⁴²/
    Xi'an /ɕyo²⁴/
    Xining /ɕyu²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ɕye¹³/
    /ɕye⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ɕyə⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ɕyɤ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /ɕio²¹³/
    Chengdu /ɕyo³¹/
    Guiyang /ɕio²¹/
    Kunming /ɕio³¹/
    Nanjing /ɕioʔ⁵/
    Hefei /ɕyɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /ɕyəʔ⁵⁴/
    Pingyao /ɕiʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /ɕyaʔ⁴³/ ~习
    /ɕiɔ³¹/ ~话
    Wu Shanghai /ɦoʔ¹/
    /ɦiaʔ¹/
    Suzhou /ɦioʔ³/
    /ɦoʔ³/
    Hangzhou /ɦiɑʔ²/
    Wenzhou /ɦo²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /ɕiɔ²²/
    /xɔ²²/
    Tunxi /xo¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ɕio²⁴/
    Xiangtan /ɕio²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /hɔʔ²/
    Hakka Meixian /hok̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /hok̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hɔk̚²/
    Nanning /hɔk̚²²/
    Hong Kong /hɔk̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hak̚⁵/
    /oʔ⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /houʔ⁵/
    /oʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xa²⁴/
    /ɔ⁴²/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /hak̚⁵/
    /oʔ⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /hiɔk̚⁵/
    /o³³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (10)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦˠʌk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦᵚɔk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣɔk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦaɨwk̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣɔk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣɔk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣɔk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    xué
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    xué
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hæwk ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m-kˁruk/
    English study; imitate

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 14079
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡruːɡ/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to comprehend; to realise; to understand
    2. (transitive) to learn; to study
      /   ―  xué  ―  to study; to learn
      打算攝影 / 打算摄影  ―  Wǒ dǎsuàn xué shèyǐng.  ―  I plan to learn photography.
      父母親希望但是願意 [MSC, trad.]
      父母亲希望但是愿意 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒ fùmǔqīn xīwàng wǒ xué yī, dànshì wǒ bù yuànyì. [Pinyin]
      My parents hoped I would study medicine, but I didn't want to.
    3. (transitive) to learn to do something (to get into the habit)
      老師唔該 [Cantonese, trad.]
      老师唔该 [Cantonese, simp.]
      lou5 si1 giu3 gik6 keoi5 dou1 m4 hang2 hok6 gong2 m4 goi1. [Jyutping]
      He refuses to learn to say thank you, even though his teacher asked him many times.
      遊戲 [Cantonese, trad.]
      游戏 [Cantonese, simp.]
      keoi5 hok6 gwaan3 zo2 waan2 ni1 zung2 jau4 hei3. [Jyutping]
      He got used to play this game.
      美國口音但係英國時候英國口音返去美國之後美國口音 [Cantonese, trad.]
      美国口音但系英国时候英国口音返去美国之后美国口音 [Cantonese, simp.]
      keoi5 hok6 zo2 gong2 mei5 gwok3 hau2 jam1, daan6 hai6 heoi3 dou3 jing1 gwok3 ge3 si4 hau6, keoi5 hok6 gong2 jing1 gwok3 hau2 jam1, faan1 heoi3 mei5 gwok3 zi1 hau6, keoi5 hok6 faan1 gong2 mei5 gwok3 hau2 jam1. [Jyutping]
      He learned to speak with an American accent, but when he was in United Kingdom, he learned to speak with a British accent, and when he came back to United States, he relearned to speak with an American accent.
    4. to imitate; to copy; to mimic
      鸚鵡 / 鹦鹉  ―  Yīngwǔ xué rén yǔ.  ―  Parrots imitate human speech.
      妹妹什麼 [MSC, trad.]
      妹妹什么 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒ mèimèi shénme dōu xué wǒ. [Pinyin]
      My little sister likes to copy everything I do.
      人哋食飯 [Cantonese, trad.]
      人哋食饭 [Cantonese, simp.]
      hok6 jan4 dei6 jung6 caa1 sik6 faan6 [Jyutping]
      imitate others and use a fork to eat
    5. school
      /   ―  xuéfèi  ―  school fees
    6. learning; knowledge
    7. theory; doctrine
    8. subject; branch of learning; science; -ology
      /   ―  huàxué  ―  chemistry
      生物 / 生物  ―  shēngwùxué  ―  biology
    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (がく) (gaku); (かく) (kaku)
    • Korean: (, hak)
    • Vietnamese: học ()

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    Note: Retroactive Mandarin reading based on historical literature. No longer in common use.

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (obsolete) Alternative form of (xiào, “to teach; to instruct; to train”).

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    Shinjitai

    Kyūjitai

    KanjiEdit

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

    1. Kyūjitai form of
    2. learning, knowledge, school

    ReadingsEdit


    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦˠʌk̚). Recorded as Middle Korean ᄒᆞᆨ (Yale: hok) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 배울 (bae-ul hak))

    1. Hanja form? of (to learn, to study; to be taught).
    2. Hanja form? of ((suffix) subject; branch of learning; -ology).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: học[1][2][3][4][5]
    : Nôm readings: học[1][2][3][4][6], hục[3]

    1. Hán tự form of học (to learn, to study).
    2. Hán tự form of học ((suffix) subject; branch of learning; -ology).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 [[Wiktionary:About Vietnamese/references#Lua error: not enough memory|Nguyễn (2014).]]
    2. 2.0 2.1 [[Wiktionary:About Vietnamese/references#Lua error: not enough memory|Nguyễn et al. (2009).]]
    3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 [[Wiktionary:About Vietnamese/references#Lua error: not enough memory|Trần (2004).]]
    4. 4.0 4.1 [[Wiktionary:About Vietnamese/references#Lua error: not enough memory|Bonet (1899).]]
    5. ^ [[Wiktionary:About Vietnamese/references#Lua error: not enough memory|Génibrel (1898).]]
    6. ^ [[Wiktionary:About Vietnamese/references#Lua error: not enough memory|Taberd & Pigneau de Béhaine (1838).]]