See also:

U+5B78, 學
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5B78

[U+5B77]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5B79]

Translingual

edit
Japanese
Simplified
Traditional
Stroke order
 
Stroke order
(alternative)
 

Han character

edit

(Kangxi radical 39, +13, 16 strokes, cangjie input 竹月弓木 (HBND), four-corner 77407, composition 𦥯)

Derived characters

edit
edit

Further reading

edit
  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 280, character 28
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7033
  • Dae Jaweon: page 549, character 27
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1019, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+5B78

Chinese

edit

Glyph origin

edit
Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
             

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意) : abbreviated (to teach) + 𦥑 (mingling hands; hands-on learning) + (house; roofed building) – a child learns in a roofed place. See for more.

In the modern form, 宀 has corrupted to (“cover”), and the hands 𦥑 around the have become connected with the roof 冖 on top of the child . Ancient forms include and , which preserve more of . Shuowen regards 𦥑 as the phonetic component in the character, which may be true according to some Old Chinese reconstructions such as that of Pan Wuyun's, though probably not others.

The earliest oracle bone script forms may be a phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *ɡruːɡ) : semantic + phonetic (OC *ruɡ).

Etymology 1

edit
trad.
simp. *
alternative forms

May be an endopassive derivation of (OC *kruːɡs, *kruːɡ, “to awake, get insight”). Ultimately from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kruk (to rouse; to awaken; to disturb).

Pronunciation

edit

Note:
  • ò̤ - vernacular;
  • hă - literary.
Note:
  • ŏ̤h - vernacular;
  • hŏk - literary.
Note:
  • o̍h - vernacular;
  • ha̍k - literary.
Note:
  • oh8 - vernacular;
  • hag8 - literary.
Note:
  • 8ghoq - vernacular;
  • 8yaq (Shanghainese), 8yoq (Suzhounese) - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕyɛ³⁵/
Harbin /ɕiau²⁴/
/ɕyɛ²⁴/
Tianjin /ɕiɑu⁴⁵/
/ɕye⁴⁵/
Jinan /ɕyə⁴²/
Qingdao /ɕyə⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ɕyo⁴²/
Xi'an /ɕyo²⁴/
Xining /ɕyu²⁴/
Yinchuan /ɕye¹³/
/ɕye⁵³/
Lanzhou /ɕyə⁵³/
Ürümqi /ɕyɤ⁵¹/
Wuhan /ɕio²¹³/
Chengdu /ɕyo³¹/
Guiyang /ɕio²¹/
Kunming /ɕio³¹/
Nanjing /ɕioʔ⁵/
Hefei /ɕyɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕyəʔ⁵⁴/
Pingyao /ɕiʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /ɕyaʔ⁴³/ ~习
/ɕiɔ³¹/ ~话
Wu Shanghai /ɦoʔ¹/
/ɦiaʔ¹/
Suzhou /ɦioʔ³/
/ɦoʔ³/
Hangzhou /ɦiɑʔ²/
Wenzhou /ɦo²¹³/
Hui Shexian /ɕiɔ²²/
/xɔ²²/
Tunxi /xo¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ɕio²⁴/
Xiangtan /ɕio²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /hɔʔ²/
Hakka Meixian /hok̚⁵/
Taoyuan /hok̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hɔk̚²/
Nanning /hɔk̚²²/
Hong Kong /hɔk̚²/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /hak̚⁵/
/oʔ⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /houʔ⁵/
/oʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /xa²⁴/
/ɔ⁴²/
Shantou (Teochew) /hak̚⁵/
/oʔ⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /hiɔk̚⁵/
/o³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (33)
Final () (10)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Baxter haewk
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦˠʌk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦᵚɔk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣɔk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦaɨwk̚/
Li
Rong
/ɣɔk̚/
Wang
Li
/ɣɔk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣɔk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xué
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
hok6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xué
Middle
Chinese
‹ hæwk ›
Old
Chinese
/*m-kˁruk/
English study; imitate

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 14079
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡruːɡ/
Notes

Definitions

edit

  1. to comprehend; to realise; to understand
  2. (transitive) to learn; to study
      ―  xué  ―  to study; to learn
    打算攝影打算摄影  ―  Wǒ dǎsuàn xué shèyǐng.  ―  I plan to learn photography.
    父母親希望但是願意 [MSC, trad.]
    父母亲希望但是愿意 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ fùmǔqīn xīwàng wǒ xué yī, dànshì wǒ bù yuànyì. [Pinyin]
    My parents hoped I would study medicine, but I didn't want to.
    老師唔該 [Cantonese, trad.]
    老师唔该 [Cantonese, simp.]
    lou5 si1 giu3 gik6 keoi5 dou1 m4 hang2 hok6 gong2 m4 goi1. [Jyutping]
    He refuses to learn to say thank you, even though his teacher asked him many times.
  3. to imitate; to copy; to mimic
    鸚鵡鹦鹉  ―  Yīngwǔ xué rén yǔ.  ―  Parrots imitate human speech.
    妹妹什麼 [MSC, trad.]
    妹妹什么 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ mèimèi shénme dōu xué wǒ. [Pinyin]
    My little sister likes to copy everything I do.
    人哋食飯 [Cantonese, trad.]
    人哋食饭 [Cantonese, simp.]
    hok6 jan4 dei6 jung6 caa1 sik6 faan6 [Jyutping]
    imitate others and use a fork to eat
  4. school
      ―  shàngxué  ―  to go to school
      ―  xiǎoxué  ―  primary school
      ―  xuéfèi  ―  school fees
  5. learning; knowledge
      ―  qiúxué  ―  to seek knowledge
    才疏才疏  ―  cáishūxuéqiǎn  ―  to be of humble talent and shallow learning
  6. theory; doctrine
      ―  xué  ―  Confucianism
  7. subject; branch of learning; science; -ology
      ―  huàxué  ―  chemistry
    生物生物  ―  shēngwùxué  ―  biology
      ―  zhéxué  ―  philosophy
  8. (Cantonese) like; as
    話齋话斋 [Cantonese]  ―  hok6 keoi5 waa6 zaai1 [Jyutping]  ―  as he said
Synonyms
edit

Compounds

edit

Descendants

edit
Sino-Xenic ():

Etymology 2

edit
trad.
simp. *

Pronunciation

edit

Definitions

edit

  1. (obsolete) Alternative form of (xiào, to teach; to instruct; to train)

Etymology 3

edit
trad.
simp. *

Pronunciation

edit

Definitions

edit

  1. Used in 學鳩学鸠.

References

edit

Japanese

edit

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji

edit

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. Kyūjitai form of
  2. learning, knowledge, school

Readings

edit

Korean

edit

Etymology

edit

From Middle Chinese (MC haewk).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅘᅡᆨ〮 (Yale: hhák)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] ᄇᆡ홀 (Yale: poyhwol) ᄒᆞᆨ (Yale: hok)

Pronunciation

edit

Hanja

edit
Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 배울 (bae'ul hak))

  1. Hanja form? of (to learn, to study; to be taught). [affix]
  2. Hanja form? of (-logy, -ics, -graphy, study of...). [suffix]

Compounds

edit

References

edit
  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

Vietnamese

edit

Han character

edit

: Hán Việt readings: học[1][2][3][4][5]
: Nôm readings: học[1][2][3][4][6], hục[3]

  1. chữ Hán form of học (to learn, to study).
  2. chữ Hán form of học ((suffix) subject; branch of learning; -ology).

Compounds

edit

References

edit