See also:
U+64D4, 擔
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-64D4

[U+64D3]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+64D5]

Translingual

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Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 64, +13, 16 strokes, cangjie input 手弓金口 (QNCR), four-corner 57061, composition )

Descendants

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 459, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 12828
  • Dae Jaweon: page 807, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1971, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+64D4

Chinese

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trad.
simp. *
alternative forms

𧭃
𥣲

Glyph origin

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Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *taːm, *taːms) : semantic (hand) + phonetic (OC *tjam) – to carry by hand.

Etymology

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According to STEDT, from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *tam (to carry on shoulder), whence Burmese ထမ်း (htam:, to carry on the shoulder). Schuessler (2007), on the other hand, notes (OC *taːm) is an area word whose source is probably Austroasiatic; compare Proto-Mon-Khmer *klam ~ *kləm (to carry on shoulder), whence Khmu klam (to carry on shoulder). An alternative form with initial *t which agrees with later Old Chinese is widespread; compare also Khmer ទាំ (tŏəm, to tire of; to bear), Khmer ទ្រាំ (trŏəm, to bear; to endure), Proto-Hmong-Mien *ntam (to carry on shoulder), whence Iu Mien daːm¹, and Proto-Tai *trwaːmᴬ (to carry on the back), whence Thai หาม (hǎam, to carry).

The softened initial in Northern Min points to OC pre-nasalization which is supported by Iu Mien daːm¹ (Schuessler, 2007), an early Chinese loan into Hmong-Mien (Baxter and Sagart, 2014).

(OC *taːms) is (OC *taːm) with the passive s/h-suffix, literally "what is carried".

Pronunciation 1

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Note:
  • taⁿ - vernacular;
  • tam - literary.
Note:
  • dam1/dang1 - literary (dang1 - Chenghai);
  • dan1 - vernacular.
Note: 1'ne - variant, possibly influenced by , used in e.g. 擔伊做脫.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (5)
Final () (143)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter tam
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tɑm/
Pan
Wuyun
/tɑm/
Shao
Rongfen
/tɑm/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tam/
Li
Rong
/tɑm/
Wang
Li
/tɑm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tɑm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
dān
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
daam1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
dān
Middle
Chinese
‹ tam ›
Old
Chinese
/*mə-tˁam/
English carry on the shoulder

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 16747
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*taːm/
Notes

Definitions

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  1. to carry on a shoulder pole
  2. to bear; to shoulder; to undertake
  3. (Cantonese) to hold in one's mouth
    行路 [Cantonese, trad.]
    行路 [Cantonese, simp.]
    keoi5 daam1 zyu6 zi1 jin1 haang4 lou6. [Jyutping]
    He is walking with a cigarette in his mouth.
    雀仔 [Cantonese, trad.]
    雀仔 [Cantonese, simp.]
    tiu4 cung4 bei2 zek3 zoek3 zai2 daam1 zau2 zo2. [Jyutping]
    The worm was taken away by the bird with the beak.
Synonyms
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  • (to bear):

Compounds

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Pronunciation 2

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Note:
  • tàⁿ - vernacular;
  • tàm - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (5)
Final () (143)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter tamH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tɑmH/
Pan
Wuyun
/tɑmH/
Shao
Rongfen
/tɑmH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tamH/
Li
Rong
/tɑmH/
Wang
Li
/tɑmH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tɑmH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
dàn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
daam3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/3 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
dàn dàn
Middle
Chinese
‹ tam › ‹ tamH ›
Old
Chinese
/*tˁam/ /*mə-tˁam-s/
English burden burden

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 16753
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*taːms/

Definitions

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  1. carrying pole with loads on both ends
  2. burden; load; responsibilities
  3. picul, a traditional Chinese unit of weight equal to 100 catties
    1. (Mainland China) picul; equal to 50 kilograms
    2. (Hong Kong) picul; equal to 60.478982 kilograms
  4. Classifier for things carried on a shoulder pole: load

Compounds

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Japanese

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Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji

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(Hyōgai kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. A traditional unit of measurement equivalent to 60kg or approximately 132.3lb
  2. shouldering
  3. carry
  4. raise
  5. bear

Readings

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Korean

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Hanja

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(eumhun (mel dam))

  1. Hanja form? of (shouldering).
  2. Hanja form? of (carry).
  3. Hanja form? of (raise).
  4. Hanja form? of (bear).

Compounds

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Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: đâm, đảm, tạ

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.