Japanese

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Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Glyph origin

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Orthographic borrowing from Literary Chinese (shū, to write).

Etymology

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From Old Japanese, ultimately from Proto-Japonic *kaku (to scratch).

First attested in the Kojiki of 712 CE.[1]

Cognate with 掻く (kaku, to scratch) (letters were originally scratched or carved into wood in order to write).

Pronunciation

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  • Tokyo pitch accent of conjugated forms of "書く"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Terminal (終止形)
Attributive (連体形)
書く [káꜜkù]
Imperative (命令形) 書け [káꜜkè]
Key constructions
Passive 書かれる かれ [kàkáréꜜrù]
Causative 書かせる かせ [kàkáséꜜrù]
Potential 書ける [kàkéꜜrù]
Volitional 書こう [kàkóꜜò]
Negative 書かない ない [kàkáꜜnàì]
Negative perfective 書かなかった なかった [kàkáꜜnàkàttà]
Formal 書きます きま [kàkímáꜜsù]
Perfective 書いた いた [káꜜìtà]
Conjunctive 書いて いて [káꜜìtè]
Hypothetical conditional 書けば けば [káꜜkèbà]

Verb

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() (kakutransitive godan (stem () (kaki), past ()いた (kaita))

  1. to write; to record (words, figures) on the surface of (something)
    昨日陳(きのうチェン)さんは図書館(としょかん)でレポートを()いていました。
    Kinō Chen-san wa toshokan de repōto o kaite imashita.
    Mr. Chen was writing a report at the library yesterday.
  2. to compose; to put (an idea, etc) into words

Conjugation

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Derived terms

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References

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  1. ^ 書・描”, in 日本国語大辞典 [Nihon Kokugo Daijiten]‎[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, 2000
  2. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN
  • 2002, Ineko Kondō; Fumi Takano; Mary E Althaus; et. al., Shogakukan Progressive Japanese-English Dictionary, Third Edition, Tokyo: Shōgakukan, →ISBN.