U+670B, 朋
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-670B

[U+670A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+670C]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 74, +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 月月 (BB), four-corner 77220, composition )

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 504, character 29
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14340
  • Dae Jaweon: page 883, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2050, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+670B

Chinese

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simp. and trad.

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Pictogram (象形) .

The oracle bone script form consisted of two strings of five cowries. Some forms of the oracle bone script contained an additional which later evolved into (OC *pruː), which served as a phonetic component. The glyph was eventually corrupted to a duplication of (“moon”).

Shuowen erroneously suggests (OC *bɯːŋ) was the ancient form of (OC *bums).

Pronunciation

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  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /pʰəŋ³⁵/
Harbin /pʰəŋ²⁴/
Tianjin /pʰəŋ⁴⁵/
Jinan /pʰəŋ⁴²/
Qingdao /pʰəŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /pʰəŋ⁴²/
Xi'an /pʰəŋ²⁴/
Xining /pʰə̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /pʰəŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /pʰə̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /pʰɤŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /pʰoŋ²¹³/
Chengdu /pʰoŋ³¹/
Guiyang /pʰoŋ²¹/
Kunming /pʰoŋ¹/
Nanjing /pʰən²⁴/
Hefei /pʰəŋ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /pʰəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /pʰəŋ¹³/
Hohhot /pʰə̃ŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /bã²³/
Suzhou /bən¹³/
Hangzhou /boŋ²¹³/
Wenzhou /boŋ³¹/
Hui Shexian /pʰʌ̃⁴⁴/
Tunxi /pʰan⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /poŋ³³/
Xiangtan /bən¹²/
Gan Nanchang /pʰuŋ²⁴/
Hakka Meixian /pʰen¹¹/
Taoyuan /pʰen¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /pʰɐŋ²¹/
Nanning /pʰɐŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /pʰɐŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /piŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /pɛiŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /paiŋ²¹/
Shantou (Teochew) /pʰeŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /foŋ³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (3)
Final () (129)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter bong
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bəŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/bəŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/bəŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/bəŋ/
Li
Rong
/bəŋ/
Wang
Li
/bəŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱəŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
péng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
pang4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
péng
Middle
Chinese
‹ bong ›
Old
Chinese
/*[b]ˁəŋ/
English set of cowries; friend

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9663
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*bɯːŋ/

Definitions

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  1. unit of shell money; various theories exist about the exact amount
  2. friend
      ―  péngyǒu  ―  friend
      ―  liángpéng  ―  good friend
  3. (literary) to gang up; to band together
  4. (literary) to be similar; to equal
    碩大無硕大无  ―  shuòdàwúpéng  ―  exceptionally large; enormous
  5. a surname

Synonyms

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Compounds

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References

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Japanese

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Shinjitai
Kyūjitai
[1][2]

朋󠄁
+&#xE0101;?
(Adobe-Japan1)
 
朋󠄃
+&#xE0103;?
(Hanyo-Denshi)
(Moji_Joho)
The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
See here for details.

Kanji

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(Jinmeiyō kanji)

  1. friend
  2. faction

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
とも
Jinmeiyō
kun'yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
とも
[noun] friend, companion, comrade, pal
[noun] member of the same category
Alternative spelling
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 2

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Proper noun

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(とも) (Tomo

  1. a female given name

References

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  1. ^ Haga, Gōtarō (1914) 漢和大辞書 [The Great Kanji-Japanese Dictionary] (in Japanese), Fourth edition, Tōkyō: Kōbunsha, →DOI, page 1089 (paper), page 595 (digital)
  2. ^ Shōundō Henshūjo, editor (1927), 新漢和辞典 [The New Kanji-Japanese Dictionary] (in Japanese), Ōsaka: Shōundō, →DOI, page 657 (paper), page 341 (digital)

Korean

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Etymology

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From Middle Chinese (MC bong). Recorded as Middle Korean 브ᇰ (pung) (Yale: pung) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (beot bung))

  1. Hanja form? of (friend).

Compounds

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References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: bằng, bẵng

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.