Japanese

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
いま
Grade: 4
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese, first appearing in the Kojiki of 712 CE;[1] ultimately from Proto-Japonic *imanta.[2] Cognate with Okinawan なーだ (nāda, yet).

Pronunciation

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Adverb

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(いま) (imada

  1. not yet, still not, never yet
    (いま)はっきりしない()()(げん)(いん)
    imada hakkiri shinai jiko gen'in
    the cause of the accident that is still unclear
  2. still, continuing to the present
    (しゅう)()(やま)(やま)(いま)(ふゆ)(よそお)いである。
    Shūi no yamayama wa imada fuyu no yosōi de aru.
    The surrounding mountains are still in their winter clothes.
Usage notes
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Synonyms
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  • () (mada)
Derived terms
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  • () (mada)

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term

Grade: 4
kun'yomi

Apheresis of (いま) (imada).

Pronunciation

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Adjective

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() (mada-na (adnominal () (mada na), adverbial () (mada ni))

  1. unfinished; not done
    ()(ごと)まだ(ひと)(はや)()ませなさい。
    Shigoto no mada na hito wa hayaku sumase nasai.
    Those who haven't finished their work, be quick.
    (ばん)(はん)まだー
    Ban-go-han madā?
    Isn't dinner ready yet?
  2. somewhat better or superior
    Synonym: 増し
Inflection
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Adverb

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() (mada

  1. yet, still
    「もう()べましたか。」「いいえ、()()べていません。」
    “Mō tabemashita ka.”“Īe, mada tabete imasen.”
    Have you eaten? — No, I have not eaten yet.
    ()やりたいことがある。
    Mada yaritai koto ga aru.
    I still have something more to do.
    ()(あめ)()っている。
    Mada ame ga futte iru.
    It's still raining.
    • 190506, Natsume Sōseki, I Am a Cat (text here)
      (わが)(はい)(ねこ)である。()(まえ)まだ()い。
      Wagahai wa neko de aru. Namae wa mada nai.
      I am a cat. As yet, I have no name.
  2. Indicating it hasn't been a long time since something happened; only
    Synonym: たった
    ()(いっ)(ぷん)(かん)しか()ってないよ。
    Mada ippunkan shika tatte nai yo.
    It has been only one minute.
  3. Indicating a choice is not good enough but still slightly better than others; would rather
    (あたま)()げるより()ぬほうが()ましだ。
    Atama o sageru yori shinu hō ga mada mashi da.
    I would rather die than to bow down.

Usage notes

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References

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  1. ^ ”, in 日本国語大辞典 [Nihon Kokugo Daijiten]‎[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, 2000
  2. ^ Alexander Vovin (2020) A Descriptive and Comparative Grammar of Western Old Japanese (Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 5 Japan; 16)‎[2], Revised, Updated and Enlarged Second Edition edition, volume 1, →ISBN, pages 1020-1022, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN