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U+67D3, 染
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-67D3

[U+67D2]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+67D4]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 75, +5, 9 strokes, cangjie input 水弓木 (END), four-corner 34904, composition氿(GJKV) or ⿱氿𣎳(HT))

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 519, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14621
  • Dae Jaweon: page 907, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1188, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+67D3

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (water) +  (hook) +  (tree) – to hang (on a hook 九) from a tree (木) into water (氵), so as to dye.

Earlier forms more often graphically  + ; water radical moved up.

EtymologyEdit

Coblin (1986) compares this to Tibetan ཉམས་པ (nyams pa, be stained, tarnished, spoiled); Pan (1987) also notes Proto-Tai *ɲuɔmᴬ as well as Vietnamese nhuộm, both meaning "to dye".

Schuessler (2007) cites Downer (1986)'s opinion that form with (shàng) tone is the verb, while form with () tone is the noun meaning "kind of cloth" (Lǐjì).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • liám/jiám - literary;
  • ní - vernacular.
Note:
  • riam2 - literary;
  • ni2 - vernacular.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʐan²¹⁴/
Harbin /ʐan²¹³/
Tianjin /ian¹³/
/ʐan¹³/
Jinan /ʐã⁵⁵/
Qingdao /iã⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /ʐan⁵³/
Xi'an /ʐã⁵³/
Xining /ʐã⁵³/
Yinchuan /ʐan⁵³/
Lanzhou /ʐɛ̃n⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /ʐan⁵¹/
Wuhan /nan⁴²/
Chengdu /zan⁵³/
Guiyang /zan⁴²/
Kunming /ʐã̠⁵³/
Nanjing /ʐaŋ²¹²/
Hefei /ʐæ̃²⁴/
/ʐən²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /zæ̃⁵³/
Pingyao /ʐɑŋ⁵³/
Hohhot /ʐæ̃⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /ȵi²³/
/zø²³/
Suzhou /ȵiɪ³¹/
Hangzhou /zz̩ʷõ¹³/
Wenzhou /ȵi³⁵/
Hui Shexian /ne³⁵/
Tunxi /ȵiɛ²⁴/
Xiang Changsha /yẽ⁴¹/
Xiangtan /iẽ⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /ȵiɛn²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /ŋiam⁵³/
Taoyuan /ŋiɑm⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jim²³/
Nanning /jim²⁴/
Hong Kong /jim¹³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /liam⁵³/
/ni⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nieŋ³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /niŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ziam⁵³/
/nĩ⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /zam²¹³/
/ni²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (38) (38)
Final () (153) (153)
Tone (調) Rising (X) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵiᴇmX/ /ȵiᴇmH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵiɛmX/ /ȵiɛmH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑjæmX/ /ȵʑjæmH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵiamX/ /ȵiamH/
Li
Rong
/ȵiɛmX/ /ȵiɛmH/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭɛmX/ /ȵʑĭɛmH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯ɛmX/ /ȵʑi̯ɛmH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
rǎn ràn
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
rǎn
Middle
Chinese
‹ nyemX ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.n[a]mʔ/
English to dye

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 10790 10791
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3 3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njomʔ/ /*njoms/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to dye
  2. be contagious
  3. to infect

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. dye, color, paint, stain, print

ReadingsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(yeom) (hangeul , revised yeom, McCune–Reischauer yŏm, Yale yem)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(nhuộm, nhẹm, nhiễm, nhuốm, ruộm, vẩn)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.