See also:
U+6BBA, 殺
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6BBA

[U+6BB9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6BBB]

U+F970, 殺
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F970

[U+F96F]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F971]
U+FA96, 殺
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-FA96

[U+FA95]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+FA97]

殺 U+2F8F5, 殺
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F8F5
殟
[U+2F8F4]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 殻
[U+2F8F6]

Translingual edit

Traditional
Simplified
Japanese
Korean

Alternative forms edit

  • In traditional Chinese (based on the modern character forms used in Taiwan and Hong Kong), the bottom left component is (𣎳 with an additional dot at its top right corner).
  • In mainland China (based on the Xin Zixing (新字形) standardized character forms), the bottom left component is instead which is one stroke less.
  • In Korean hanja, the bottom left component is , which is also the historical form found in the Kangxi dictionary.
  • In Japanese shinjitai and Vietnamese Nôm, the bottom left component is which is one stroke less.
  • Three CJK Compatibility Ideographs exist for this character:
    • U+F970 corresponds to the Japanese kyūjitai form containing which is similar to the historical Kangxi form.
    • U+FA96 corresponds to the alternative Korean form which is similar to the Japanese shinjitai form containing .
    • U+2F8F5 is similar to the traditional form in Taiwan but has 𣎳 (without dot at top right corner) instead of as its bottom left component.

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 79, +7 in traditional Chinese and Korean, 殳+6 in mainland China and Japanese, 11 strokes in traditional Chinese and Korean, 10 strokes in mainland China and Japanese, cangjie input 大金竹弓水 (KCHNE) or 大木竹弓水 (KDHNE), four-corner 47947, composition ⿰⿱(G) or ⿰⿱(HT) or ⿰⿱(JV or U+FA96) or ⿰⿱(K or U+F970) or ⿰⿱𣎳(U+2F8F5))

Related characters edit

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 585, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 16638
  • Dae Jaweon: page 978, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2157, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6BBA

Chinese edit

trad.
simp. *
alternative forms

Glyph origin edit

In the oracle bone script, it was an ideogrammic compound (會意会意) of a boar that had been impaled in the head.

In the seal script, the original compound was corrupted into 𣏂 (sometimes written as ). It was also in the seal script that the pictogram (象形): (person) + (right hand), which was later corrupted into (“spear”) or , was added under the head of the boar to specify the killing was done by a person.

The modern-day character inherits this and can be thought of as a phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *sreːds, *sreːd): phonetic 𣏂 () + semantic (spear).

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g/b-sat (to kill); compare Tibetan བསད (bsad), perfect of Tibetan གསོད (gsod, to kill), Proto-Lolo-Burmese *C-sat (to kill), Japhug sat (to kill) (STEDT; Schuessler, 2007; Zhang, Jacques and Lai, 2019).

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • sat - literary;
  • soah - vernacular.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʂa⁵⁵/
    Harbin /ʂa⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /sɑ²¹/
    Jinan /ʂa²¹³/
    Qingdao /ʂa⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰa²⁴/
    Xi'an /sa²¹/
    Xining /sa⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ʂa¹³/
    Lanzhou /ʂa¹³/
    Ürümqi /sa²¹³/
    Wuhan /sa²¹³/
    Chengdu /sa³¹/
    Guiyang /sa²¹/
    Kunming /ʂa̠³¹/
    Nanjing /ʂɑʔ⁵/
    Hefei /ʂɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /saʔ²/
    Pingyao /sʌʔ¹³/
    Hohhot /saʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /saʔ⁵/
    Suzhou /saʔ⁵/
    Hangzhou /sɑʔ⁵/
    Wenzhou /sa²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /saʔ²¹/
    Tunxi /sɔ⁵/
    Xiang Changsha /sa²⁴/
    Xiangtan /sɒ²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /saʔ⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /sat̚¹/
    Taoyuan /sɑt̚²²/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /sat̚³/
    Nanning /sat̚³³/
    Hong Kong /sɐt̚³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sat̚³²/
    /suaʔ³²/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /sɑʔ²³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /suɛ²⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /suaʔ²/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /sa⁵⁵/
    /tua⁵⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (21)
    Final () (75)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Baxter sreat
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʃˠɛt̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʃᵚæt̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʃæt̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʂəɨt̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʃɛt̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʃæt̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʂat̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    sha
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    saat3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shā
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ srɛt ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s<r>at/
    English kill

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 11010
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sreːd/

    Definitions edit

    1. (transitive) to kill; to murder
      烏蠅 [Cantonese, trad.]
      乌蝇 [Cantonese, simp.]
      ngo5 saat3 zo2 zek3 wu1 jing4-1. [Jyutping]
      I killed a fly.
    2. to ruin; to harm
    3. to fight
    4. (dialectal, transitive) to cut; to slice (fruit, food)
      西瓜西瓜  ―  shā xīguā  ―  to cut a watermelon
    5. (transitive) to abate; to reduce
        ―  shājià  ―  to bargain
    6. (regional, colloquial) to sting
    7. (chess) to mate; short for 將殺将杀 (jiāngshā) ("to checkmate")
    Usage notes edit
    • Normally, the subject of should be animate. The sentence "A tiger killed many people." can be validly translated as 老虎殺死數人, while the sentence "This accident killed many people." is seldom translated as *這次事故殺死數人. For death caused by non-living things, split forms of 致死 (zhìsǐ) are often used instead:
      事故死亡 [MSC, trad.]
      事故死亡 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhè cì shìgù zhì shù rén sǐwáng. [Pinyin]
      This accident caused many people's deaths.
    Synonyms edit
    • (to kill):

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    From (OC *sʰrol, *srul, “to diminish; to decay”) + final *-t (Schuessler, 2007).

    Pronunciation edit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (21)
    Final () (33)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Baxter sreajH
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʃˠɛiH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʃᵚæiH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʃɐiH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʂəɨjH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʃɛiH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʃɐiH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʂăiH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shài
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    saai3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shài
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ srɛjH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s<r>at-s/
    English diminish

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 11006
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sreːds/

    Definitions edit

    1. to pare off; to diminish; to reduce; to clip

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 3 edit

    Pronunciation edit


    Definitions edit

    1. dark
    2. Alternative form of 𥻦 (to spread; to exile)

    Etymology 4 edit

    Pronunciation edit


    Definitions edit

    1. Only used in 蹩殺蹩杀.

    Etymology 5 edit

    Pronunciation edit


    Definitions edit

    1. Only used in 降殺降杀.

    Etymology 6 edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to assassinate; to kill a superior”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of ).

    References edit

    Japanese edit

    Shinjitai
    Kyūjitai
    [1][2]


    &#xF970;
    or
    +&#xFE00;?
     
    殺󠄀
    +&#xE0100;?
    (Adobe-Japan1)
    殺󠄃
    +&#xE0103;?
    (Hanyo-Denshi)
    (Moji_Joho)
    The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
    See here for details.

    Kanji edit

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

    1. to kill

    Readings edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC sreat):

    From Middle Chinese (MC sreajH):

    From native Japanese roots:

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    1. ^ ”, in 漢字ぺディア (Kanjipedia)[1] (in Japanese), 日本漢字能力検定協会, 2015–2024
    2. ^ 1914, 漢和大辭書 (Kanwa Dai Jisho, “The Great Kanji-Japanese Dictionary”) (in Japanese), page 1220 (paper), page 661 (digital), Tōkyō: 興文社 (Kōbunsha)

    Korean edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC sreat).

    Historical readings

    Pronunciation edit

    Hanja edit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 죽일 (jugil sal))

    1. Hanja form? of (to kill).

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC sreajH).

    Historical readings

    Pronunciation edit

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [sʰwɛ(ː)] ~ [sʰwe̞(ː)]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)/(ː)]
      • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

    Hanja edit

    (eumhun 감할 (gamhal swae))

    1. Hanja form? of (to pare off; to diminish; to reduce; to clip).

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Nôm readings: sát, sái, sít, sịt, sướt, sét, sượt

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.