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ChineseEdit

the people; nationality; citizen
 
to own; to host; master; lord; primary
simp. and trad.
(民主)

EtymologyEdit

In Classical Chinese, 民主 meant "monarch", as in 民之主, or "ruler of the people". This was repurposed in the mid-1860s to mean "democracy", "democratic" during the translation of the book Elements of International Law.

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (4) (23)
Final () (43) (24)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open Closed
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/miɪn/ /t͡ɕɨoX/
Pan
Wuyun
/min/ /t͡ɕioX/
Shao
Rongfen
/mjen/ /t͡ɕioX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/min/ /cuə̆X/
Li
Rong
/miĕn/ /t͡ɕioX/
Wang
Li
/mĭĕn/ /t͡ɕĭuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/mi̯ĕn/ /t͡ɕi̯uX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
mín zhǔ
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
mín zhǔ
Middle
Chinese
‹ mjin › ‹ tsyuX ›
Old
Chinese
/*mi[ŋ]/ /*toʔ/
English people master; host

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 9130 17618
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*min/ /*tjoʔ/

NounEdit

民主

  1. democracy
  2. (Classical Chinese) monarch
  3. (Classical Chinese) functionary; official

SynonymsEdit

AdjectiveEdit

民主

  1. democratic
    民主協商 / 民主协商  ―  mínzhǔ xiéshāng  ―  democratic consultation

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Proper nounEdit

民主

  1. () Minzhu (a village in Zhonglu, Lichuan, Enshi, Hubei, China)

JapaneseEdit

Kanji in this term
みん
Grade: 4
しゅ
Grade: 3
on’yomi

EtymologyEdit

From Sinitic 民主. Purposed in China in the mid-1860s, giving the word a new meaning, during the translation of the book Elements of International Law into Chinese.[1]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

民主 (hiragana みんしゅ, rōmaji minshu)

  1. democracy

SynonymsEdit

CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Chen, Sheng Bao (1996-12-17), “中国語の中の日本語 (Chinese Borrowings from the Japanese Language), paper presented at the Japanese Language Research Forum held by the International Research Center for Japanese Studies”, in (Please provide the title of the work)[1] (in Japanese), International Research Center for Japanese Studies, archived from the original on 10 September 2012, retrieved 2012-06-15: “古代漢語のことばを利用して訳したものだが、本来の意味とは違うもの。...「民主」”

KoreanEdit

Hanja in this term

NounEdit

民主 (minju) (hangeul 민주)

  1. Hanja form? of 민주 (democracy).

VietnameseEdit

Hán tự in this term

NounEdit

民主

  1. Hán tự form of dân chủ (democracy).