See also:
U+6E1B, 減
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6E1B

[U+6E1A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6E1C]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
Japan
 
(Swap 5 and 4
for Chinese;
additionally,
swap 12 and 11
for Taiwan.)

Han characterEdit

(Kangxi radical 85, +9, 12 strokes, cangjie input 水戈竹口 (EIHR), four-corner 33150, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 633, character 42
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17759
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1040, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1671, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+6E1B

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Etymology 1Edit

trad.
simp.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • kiám - vernacular;
  • kám - literary;
  • kiám - literary (Zhangzhou).

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕian²¹⁴/
Harbin /t͡ɕian²¹³/
Tianjin /t͡ɕian¹³/
Jinan /t͡ɕiã⁵⁵/
Qingdao /t͡ɕiã⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /t͡ɕian⁵³/
Xi'an /t͡ɕiã⁵³/
Xining /t͡ɕiã⁵³/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕian⁵³/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕiɛ̃n⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕian⁵¹/
Wuhan /t͡ɕiɛn⁴²/
Chengdu /t͡ɕian⁵³/
Guiyang /t͡ɕian⁴²/
/kan⁴²/
Kunming /t͡ɕiɛ̃⁵³/
Nanjing /t͡ɕien²¹²/
Hefei /t͡ɕiĩ²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕie⁵³/
Pingyao /t͡ɕiɑŋ⁵³/
Hohhot /t͡ɕie⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /ke⁵³/
Suzhou /ke̞⁵¹/
Hangzhou /t͡ɕiẽ̞⁵³/
Wenzhou /ka³⁵/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕie³⁵/
/kɛ³⁵/
Tunxi /kɔ³¹/
Xiang Changsha /kan⁴¹/
Xiangtan /kan⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /kan²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /kam³¹/
Taoyuan /kɑm³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /kam³⁵/
Nanning /kam³⁵/
Hong Kong /kam³⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kam⁵³/
/kiam⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kɛiŋ³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kaŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kiam⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /kiam²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (33) (28)
Final () (151) (151)
Tone (調) Rising (X) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () II II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦˠɛmX/ /kˠɛmX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦᵚæmX/ /kᵚæmX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣɐmX/ /kɐmX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦəɨmX/ /kəɨmX/
Li
Rong
/ɣɐmX/ /kɐmX/
Wang
Li
/ɣɐmX/ /kɐmX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣămX/ /kămX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xiàn jiǎn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
haam6 gaam2
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jiǎn jiǎn
Middle
Chinese
‹ hɛmX › ‹ kɛmX ›
Old
Chinese
/*m-kˁr[ə]mʔ/ /*kˁr[ə]mʔ/
English abridge reduce

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 13509 13521
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*krɯːmʔ/ /*ɡrɯːmʔ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to decrease; to subtract; to diminish
  2. (arithmetic) to subtract
    Antonym: (jiā)
  3. 55th tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "diminishment" (𝌼)
  4. (chemistry) basic
    Antonym: (suān)

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms (gam2) Cantonese
(gam2) Cantonese
(gan2) Cantonese

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “from etymology 1?”)

PronunciationEdit


DefinitionsEdit

  1. (Cantonese) Used after a verb or adjective to indicate partial attainment of an amount/degree.
    蛋糕細路仔 [Cantonese, trad.]
    蛋糕细路仔 [Cantonese, simp.]
    go3 daan6 gou1 bei2 di1 sai3 lou6 zai2 sik6 gam2 jat1 daai6 gyut6. [Jyutping]
    The kids ate a big section of the cake.
    次次硬係 [Cantonese, trad.]
    次次硬系 [Cantonese, simp.]
    ci3 ci3 ngaang6-2 hai6 siu2 gam2 gei2 go3 jan4. [Jyutping]
    We're missing a few people every single time.
    頭先而家 [Cantonese, trad.]
    头先𰥛而家 [Cantonese, simp.]
    tau4 sin1 go3 tau4 hou2 tung3, fan3 jyun4 jat1 gaau3, ji4 gaa1 hou2 gam2 di1 laa3. [Jyutping]
    I had a bad headache before. After taking a nap, I feel a bit better.

ReferencesEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

SuffixEdit

(げん) (-gen

  1. reduction

KoreanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle Chinese (MC kˠɛmX). Recorded as Middle Korean (kam) (Yale: kam) in Sinjeung Yuhap (新增類合 / 신증유합), 1576.

PronunciationEdit

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ka̠(ː)m]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
    • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

HanjaEdit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (deol gam))

  1. Hanja form? of (reduction).

CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Nôm readings: giảm, dởm, xảm

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.