See also:
U+6E2F, 港
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6E2F

[U+6E2E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6E30]
港 U+2F908, 港
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F908
洴
[U+2F907]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 湮
[U+2F909]

Translingual edit

Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Alternative forms edit

Note that, as in , in Chinese, the bottom is , while in Japanese, the bottom is .

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 85, +9, 12 strokes, cangjie input 水廿金山 (ETCU), four-corner 34117, composition )

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 635, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17783
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1042, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1668, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+6E2F

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𣿑
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)
  • káng (Min Nan)

Glyph origin edit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *kroːŋʔ, *ɡloːŋs): semantic (river; water) + phonetic (OC *ɡroːŋs).

Etymology 1 edit

Cognate with (OC *kroːŋ, “river”) (Schuessler, 2007). The southern dialectal word originally meant "small river/stream", which is still preserved in some Min languages. The irregular pronunciation in Mandarin (expected Mandarin reflex is *jiǎng) originated from southern dialects where velars have not palatalized (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (28)
Final () (9)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Baxter kaewngX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kˠʌŋX/
Pan
Wuyun
/kᵚɔŋX/
Shao
Rongfen
/kɔŋX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kaɨwŋX/
Li
Rong
/kɔŋX/
Wang
Li
/kɔŋX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kɔŋX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jiǎng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gong2
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 4150
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kroːŋʔ/

Definitions edit

  1. tributary of a larger river or lake
  2. (dialectal) river
  3. port; harbor
      ―  jūngǎng  ―  naval port
    基隆  ―  Jīlóng Gǎng  ―  Port of Keelung
  4. large airport
  5. Short for 香港 (Xiānggǎng, “Hong Kong”).
      ―  gǎng  ―  Hong Kong dollar
    [Cantonese]  ―  gong2 jan4 zi6 gong2 [Jyutping]  ―  Hong Kong people administering Hong Kong
  6. (colloquial) Hong Kong-styled
  7. (Hokkien) Classifier for fluids: stream
  8. a surname
Usage notes edit
Synonyms edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 2 edit

Pronunciation edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (33)
Final () (1)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter huwngH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦuŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦuŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣuŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦəwŋH/
Li
Rong
/ɣuŋH/
Wang
Li
/ɣuŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣuŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
hòng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
hung6
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 4163
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡloːŋs/
Notes

Definitions edit

  1. Only used in 港洞.

Japanese edit

Shinjitai
Kyūjitai
[1]

港󠄁
+󠄁?
(Adobe-Japan1)
 
港󠄃
+󠄃?
(Hanyo-Denshi)
(Moji_Joho)
The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
See here for details.

Alternative forms edit

Kanji edit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology edit

 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Kanji in this term
みなと
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Attested in the Nihon Shoki of 720.[2][3] Reconstructed as deriving from Proto-Japonic *minato.

The traditional etymology that Japanese sources trace back to is a compound of (mi-, water) +‎ (na, assimilated apophonic form of (no, genitive case marker)) +‎ (to, gate).[3][4][5][6][7]

  • However, this does not correlate cleanly with the etymology of (mizu, water), reconstructed as Proto-Japonic *mentu (water). Then again, there are numerous attested words where (mi) is used as the first and last element in compounds, suggesting either that the derivation of (mizu) might differ.

Vovin, on the other hand suggests that the initial mi- was (mi-, honorific prefix), while -na- meant "water", possibly from Proto-Tai *C̬.namꟲ (water).[8] Compare (namida, tears), 菜葱, 水葱 (nagi, Monochoria vaginalis), 漬く (nazuku, soak in water, obsolete).

  • However, this may present semantic difficulties, as any native formation like namida that proposes "water" for the initial nam and "eye" for a following component reverses the usual word-formation pattern for Japanese, where the main or head noun comes last. In addition, the na element appears in other words with no relation to "water", as an assimilated apophonic form of genitive particle (no), seen in terms such as (tanagokoro, palm of the hand, literally hand's heart/center), 眼間 (manakai, where the lines of sight of the eyes converge, literally eyes' exchanging/crossing).

Pronunciation edit

  • (file)

Noun edit

(みなと) (minato

  1. [from 720] a sluice; a section of a river to let water in and out
    • 905914, Kokin Wakashū (book 5, poem 293)
      もみぢ()(なが)れてとまる水門(みなと)には(くれなゐ)(ふか)(なみ)()つらむ
      momiji ba no nagarete tomaru minato niha kurenai fukaki nami ya tatsuramu
      At the end of the river gate where there are autumn leaves, there are deep red waves! I shall stop...
  2. [from 720] a port, harbour; a place where boats can unload
  3. [from 1205] (figurative) a stop

Proper noun edit

 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

(みなと) (Minato

  1. Minato (one of 23 special wards in Tokyo prefecture, Japan)
  2. an administrative district in Nagoya prefecture
  3. an administrative district in Osaka Prefecture
  4. a male given name

References edit

  1. ^ ”, in 漢字ぺディア (Kanjipedia)[1] (in Japanese), 日本漢字能力検定協会, 2015–2024
  2. ^ Omodaka, Hisataka (1967) 時代別国語大辞典 上代編 [The dictionary of historical Japanese: Old Japanese] (in Japanese), →ISBN, page 713
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 み‐な‐と 【港・湊・水門】”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)  [2] (in Japanese), 2nd edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000, released online 2007, →ISBN, concise edition entry available here (Note: Dialectal meanings, etymological theories, pronunciation including modern, dialectal, and historical information, Jōdai Tokushu Kanazukai, historical dictionaries containing this word, and the kanji spellings in those dictionaries have been omitted.)
  4. 4.0 4.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  5. ^ ”, in デジタル大辞泉 (Dejitaru Daijisen)[3] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, updated roughly every four months
  6. ^ 1998, 広辞苑 (Kōjien), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, →ISBN
  7. 7.0 7.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  8. ^ Vovin, Alexander (2010), “上代日本語と古代・中世韓国語の「水」と「涙」”, in 日韓言語学者会議 (in Japanese), 麗澤大学言語研究センター, pages 115-120
  9. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

Korean edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC kaewngX).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 가ᇰ〯 (Yale: kǎng)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[4] 개〮 (Yale: káy) 하ᇰ〯 (Yale: hǎng)

Pronunciation edit

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ha̠(ː)ŋ]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
    • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 항구(港口) (hanggu hang))

  1. Hanja form? of (harbour; port). [noun]

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [5]

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Nôm readings: cảng

  1. chữ Hán form of cảng (port; harbor).