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U+70CF, 烏
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-70CF

[U+70CE]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+70D0]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 86, +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 竹口卜火 (HRYF), four-corner 27327, composition丿⿹⿺)

Derived charactersEdit

Related charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

Wikidata has structured data related to:

Wikidata

  • KangXi: page 670, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 18998
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1079, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2202, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+70CF

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
   
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*qaː
*qaː
*qaː
*qaː
*qaː
*qaː, *qaːʔ
*qaː, *qaːʔ, *qas
*qaː
*qaːʔ
*qaːʔ, *qaːs
*qaːʔ

Pictogram (象形) – a bird. Compare (“bird”), of similar development.

EtymologyEdit

“crow; black; dark”
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ka-n (crow) (STEDT). Cognate with (OC *qraː, “crow; raven”), which retains the earlier vowel in Middle Chinese (*ʔˠa), and (OC *la, *las, “jackdaw”).
Schuessler (2007) considers it to be onomatopoeic, and compares it with Proto-Loloish *akᴸ (crow).
“Black; dark” is a semantic extension of “crow” – “black as a crow”. Compare (OC *hmlɯːɡ, “black”), which is cognate with (OC *mlɯːɡ, “ink”).
interrogative pronoun
Related to the following interrogative pronouns with similar phonological shapes in Old Chinese (Wang, 1982), with differing suffixes:
  • (OC *qan, *qran, “how; where”)
  • (OC *qaː, “how”)
  • (OC *qaːn, “where; how; why”)

PronunciationEdit


Note: "wù" - only used in 烏拉乌拉 (wùlā).
Note:
  • ou1 - vernacular;
  • u1 - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /u⁵⁵/
    Harbin /u⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /u²¹/
    Jinan /u²¹³/
    Qingdao /vu²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /u²⁴/
    Xi'an /u²¹/
    Xining /v̩⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /vu⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /vu³¹/
    Ürümqi /vu⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /u⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /u⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /u⁵⁵/
    Kunming /u⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /u³¹/
    Hefei /u²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /vu¹¹/
    Pingyao /u¹³/
    Hohhot /vu³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /u⁵³/
    Suzhou /əu⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /ʔu³³/
    Wenzhou /v̠u³³/
    Hui Shexian /u³¹/
    Tunxi /u¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /u³³/
    Xiangtan /u³³/
    Gan Nanchang /u⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /vu⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /vu²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /wu⁵³/
    Nanning /wu⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /wu⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ɔ⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /u⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /u⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ou³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /u²³/
    /ɔu²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (23)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔuo/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔuo/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔo/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔɔ/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔo/
    Wang
    Li
    /u/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔuo/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ʔu › ‹ ʔu › ‹ ʔu ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ʔ]ˁa/ /*qˁa/ /*ʔˁa/
    English oh! crow, raven; black 烏桓, 烏丸 Wūhuán: Avars (W. Hàn)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 13077
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qaː/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. crow; raven; rook
    2. sun
    3. (literary or Hakka, Min) black; dark
    4. to dye black
    5. An interrogative pronoun with a variety of meanings, including “how”, “why”, “where”, etc.
    6. no; not
    7. A surname​.
    8. () Synonym of 大肚, a river on Taiwan Island

    SynonymsEdit

    Dialectal synonyms of (“black”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese , , , , ,
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Tianjin
    Jinan
    Xi'an
    Wuhan , ,
    Chengdu ,
    Yangzhou
    Hefei
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Yangjiang
    Gan Nanchang , ,
    Hakka Meixian
    Jin Taiyuan
    Min Bei Jian'ou ,
    Min Dong Fuzhou ,
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei
    Chaozhou
    Wu Shanghai
    Suzhou
    Wenzhou , ,
    Xiang Changsha ,
    Shuangfeng ,
    Dialectal synonyms of 烏鴉 (“crow; raven”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese ,
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 烏鴉
    Mandarin Beijing 老鴰
    Taiwan 烏鴉
    Harbin 老哇, 老哇子, 黑老哇, 烏鴉
    Shenyang 老鴰
    Hailar 老鴰
    Ulan Hot 老鴰
    Tongliao 老鴰
    Chifeng 老鴰
    Bayanhot 老哇
    Jinan 老鴰, 黑老鴰
    Muping 黑老哇子
    Luoyang 老鴰
    Wanrong 老哇
    Xi'an 老哇, 黑老哇
    Qingdao 老哇
    Zhengzhou 老鴰
    Xining 老哇, 鴰老闆
    Xuzhou 老鴰, 烏鴉
    Yinchuan 老哇
    Lanzhou 老哇, 狼老哇
    Ürümqi 老哇
    Wuhan 老哇
    Chengdu 老哇, 烏鴉
    Guiyang 老哇
    Guilin 烏鴉
    Liuzhou 烏鴉, 烏鴉鳥
    Kunming 老哇
    Yangzhou 老鴉
    Nanjing 老哇, 黑老哇
    Hefei 老鴰子, 老鴰
    Nantong 老鴉
    Cantonese Guangzhou 烏鴉
    Hong Kong 烏鴉
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 老鴉
    Foshan 烏鴉
    Shunde 烏鴉
    Zhongshan (Shiqi) 烏鴉
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 烏鴉
    Taishan 烏鴉
    Kaiping (Chikan) 烏鴉
    Dongguan 烏鴉
    Shaoguan 烏鴉
    Yunfu 烏鴉
    Yangjiang 老鴉
    Xinyi 烏鴉
    Lianjiang 烏鴉
    Nanning 烏鴉
    Wuzhou 烏鴉
    Yulin 烏鴉
    Hepu 烏鴉
    Danzhou 老鴉
    Kuala Lumpur 烏鴉
    Gan Nanchang 老鴉
    Lichuan 老鴉
    Pingxiang 鴉雀, 老鴉
    Hakka Meixian 老鴉
    Luchuan 老鴉, 烏鴉
    Changting 烏鴉鵲
    Wuping 烏鴉
    Ninghua 老鴉子
    Yudu 老鴉
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 老鴉仔
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 老鴉仔, 烏鴉
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 烏鴉
    Dongshi (Dabu) 老鴉, 烏鴉
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 烏鴉
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 烏鴉
    Hong Kong 老鴉, 烏鴉
    Sabah 烏鴉
    Senai 老鴉
    Singkawang 烏鴉
    Huizhou Jixi 老鴉
    Shexian 老鴉
    Tunxi 老鴉
    Jin Taiyuan 黑老哇
    Pingyao 黑老哇
    Xinzhou 黑澇鴉兒
    Baochang 黑老哇
    Jining 黑老哇
    Hohhot 黑老哇
    Baotou 烏鴉
    Dongsheng 黑老哇
    Linhe 黑老哇
    Haibowan 黑老哇
    Min Bei Jian'ou 老鴉
    Min Dong Fuzhou 老鴉
    Changle 老鴉
    Fuqing 老鴉
    Yongtai 老鴰
    Gutian 老鴉
    Fu'an 老鴉
    Ningde 老鴉
    Shouning 老鴉
    Zhouning 老鴉
    Fuding 老鴉
    Min Nan Xiamen 烏鴉
    Quanzhou 烏鴉
    Zhangzhou 烏鴉
    Taipei 烏鴉
    Kaohsiung 烏鴉
    Yilan 烏鴉仔
    Penang 烏鴉
    Singapore 烏鴉, 歹鳥
    Philippines (Manila) 烏鴉
    Pingnan 老鴉
    Chaozhou 烏鴉
    Haifeng 烏鴉
    Johor Bahru 烏鴉
    Wenchang 衫烏
    Leizhou 沙烏
    Puxian Min Putian 鶚卵
    Xianyou 鶚卵
    Pinghua Nanning 烏鴉, 老鴉
    Guilin 烏鴉
    Wu Shanghai 老鴉, 烏鴉
    Suzhou 老鴉
    Hangzhou 烏老鴉
    Wenzhou 老鴉
    Chongming 老鴉
    Danyang 烏老鴉, 烏鴉, 老鴉
    Jinhua 烏老鴉
    Ningbo 老鴉
    Xiang Changsha 老哇子, 老哇
    Shuangfeng 老哇子
    Loudi 老哇子, 老哇
    Quanzhou 烏鴉

    See alsoEdit

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
     
    (karasu): a raven, a raven.

    Compound of から (kara, caw, onomatopoeia, imitative of a crow's caw) +‎ (su, bird, ancient suffix appearing in certain bird names, possibly cognate with Korean (sae, bird)).[1] Compare the (su) in (uguisu), 杜鵑 (hototogisu), モズ (mozu).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana からす, katakana カラス, rōmaji karasu)

    1. a crow or a raven
    Alternative formsEdit
    • (less common)
    Usage notesEdit

    This is the most common reading for this character when used in isolation in modern Japanese.

    As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts, as カラス.

    SynonymsEdit
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Jinmeiyō
    goon

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʔuo).

    The goon pronunciation, so likely the initial borrowing.

    PronunciationEdit

    AffixEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji u)

    1. crow; raven
    2. black; dark
    3. (figuratively) sun
    4. A Chinese interrogative for rhetorical questions.
       () (ゆう)u(literally “not-have”) nonexistence; nothing
    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KikaiEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (karasu).

    KanjiEdit

    (hiragana がらさー, romaji garasā, hiragana がるさー, romaji garusā)

    NounEdit

    (hiragana がらさー, romaji garasā, hiragana がるさー, romaji garusā)

    1. crow, raven

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (o) (hangeul , revised o, McCune–Reischauer o, Yale o)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Northern Amami-OshimaEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (karasu).

    KanjiEdit

    (hiragana からすぃ, romaji karasi)

    NounEdit

    (hiragana からすぃ, romaji karasi)

    1. crow, raven

    Oki-No-ErabuEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (karasu).

    KanjiEdit

    (hiragana がらし, romaji garashi)

    NounEdit

    (hiragana がらし, romaji garashi)

    1. crow, raven

    OkinawanEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (karasu).

    KanjiEdit

    (hiragana がらし, romaji garashi)

    NounEdit

    (hiragana がらし, romaji garashi)

    1. crow, raven

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (ô, o, dặng)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    YonaguniEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (karasu).

    KanjiEdit

    (hiragana がらち, romaji garachi)

    NounEdit

    (hiragana がらち, romaji garachi)

    1. crow, raven