See also: and
U+70CF, 烏
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-70CF

[U+70CE]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+70D0]

Translingual

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Han character

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raven and crow

(Kangxi radical 86, +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 竹口卜火 (HRYF), four-corner 27327, composition 丿⿹⿺)

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 670, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 18998
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1079, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2202, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+70CF

Chinese

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trad.
simp.
alternative forms 𠂶
𡖗
𡗃
𤚶
𥾪

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
   

Pictogram (象形) – a bird. Compare (“bird”), of similar development.

Etymology

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“crow; black; dark”
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ka-n (crow) (STEDT). Doublet of (OC *qraː, “crow; raven”), which retains the earlier vowel in Middle Chinese (*ʔˠa), and (OC *la, *las, “jackdaw”).
Schuessler (2007) considers it to be onomatopoeic, and compares it with Proto-Loloish *akᴸ (crow).
“Black; dark” is a semantic extension of “crow” – “black as a crow”. Compare (OC *hmlɯːɡ, “black”), which is cognate with (OC *mlɯːɡ, “ink”).
“sun”
The Three-legged crow was thought to reside in the Sun.
interrogative pronoun
Related to the following interrogative pronouns with similar phonological shapes in Old Chinese (Wang, 1982), with differing suffixes:
  • (OC *qan, *qran, “how; where”)
  • (OC *qaː, “how”)
  • (OC *qaːn, “where; how; why”)

Pronunciation

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Note: "wù" - only used in 烏拉乌拉 (wùla).
Note:
  • ou1 - vernacular;
  • u1 - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /u⁵⁵/
Harbin /u⁴⁴/
Tianjin /u²¹/
Jinan /u²¹³/
Qingdao /vu²¹³/
Zhengzhou /u²⁴/
Xi'an /u²¹/
Xining /v̩⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /vu⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /vu³¹/
Ürümqi /vu⁴⁴/
Wuhan /u⁵⁵/
Chengdu /u⁵⁵/
Guiyang /u⁵⁵/
Kunming /u⁴⁴/
Nanjing /u³¹/
Hefei /u²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /vu¹¹/
Pingyao /u¹³/
Hohhot /vu³¹/
Wu Shanghai /u⁵³/
Suzhou /əu⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /ʔu³³/
Wenzhou /v̠u³³/
Hui Shexian /u³¹/
Tunxi /u¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /u³³/
Xiangtan /u³³/
Gan Nanchang /u⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /vu⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /vu²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /wu⁵³/
Nanning /wu⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /wu⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /ɔ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /u⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /u⁵⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /ou³³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /u²³/
/ɔu²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (34)
Final () (23)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter 'u
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔuo/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔuo/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔo/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔɔ/
Li
Rong
/ʔo/
Wang
Li
/u/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔuo/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
wu1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ʔu › ‹ ʔu › ‹ ʔu ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ʔ]ˁa/ /*qˁa/ /*ʔˁa/
English oh! crow, raven; black 烏桓, 烏丸 Wūhuán: Avars (W. Hàn)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13077
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qaː/

Definitions

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  1. crow; raven; rook
  2. (obsolete, metonymically) sun
    兔走兔走  ―  tùzǒufēi  ―  time passes quickly (literally, “the rabbit [of the moon] runs and the crow [of the sun] flies”)
  3. (literary or in compounds or Hakka, Min) black; dark
      ―  yún  ―  dark cloud
    油油油油  ―  yóuyóu  ―  glossy black
    嘴唇嘴唇  ―  zuǐchún fā   ―  one's lips turn black
  4. (literary) to dye black
  5. (literary) An interrogative pronoun with a variety of meanings, including "how", "why", "where", etc.
  6. Short for 烏克蘭乌克兰 (Wūkèlán, “Ukraine”).
    戰爭战争  ―  É- zhànzhēng  ―  Russia-Ukraine War
  7. a surname

Synonyms

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See also

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Compounds

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References

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(Jinmeiyō kanji)

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
からす
Jinmeiyō
kun'yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
からすカラス
[noun] a crow or raven
Alternative spelling
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Derived terms

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Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term

Jinmeiyō
goon

From Middle Chinese (MC 'u).

The goon pronunciation, so likely the initial borrowing.

Pronunciation

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Affix

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() (u

  1. crow; raven
  2. black; dark
  3. (figuratively) sun
  4. A Chinese interrogative for rhetorical questions.
    ()(ゆう)u(literally “not-have”) nonexistence; nothing
Derived terms
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Kikai

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Kanji

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(Jinmeiyō kanji)

Etymology

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Kanji in this term
がらさー
Jinmeiyō
Kanji in this term
がるさー
Jinmeiyō
Alternative spelling

Cognate with Japanese (karasu).

Noun

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(がらさー) or (がるさー) (garasā or garusā

  1. crow, raven

Korean

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Hanja

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(o) (hangeul , revised o, McCune–Reischauer o, Yale o)

  1. hanja form? of (crow)

Northern Amami Ōshima

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Kanji

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(Jinmeiyō kanji)

Etymology

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Kanji in this term
がらすぃ
Jinmeiyō
Alternative spelling

Cognate with Japanese (karasu).

Noun

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(がらすぃ) (garasï

  1. crow, raven

Okinawan

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Kanji

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(Jinmeiyō kanji)

Etymology

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Kanji in this term
がらし
Jinmeiyō
Alternative spelling

Cognate with Japanese (karasu).

Noun

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(がらし) (garashi

  1. crow, raven

Okinoerabu

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Kanji

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(Jinmeiyō kanji)

Etymology

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Kanji in this term
がらし
Jinmeiyō
Alternative spelling

Cognate with Japanese (karasu).

Noun

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(がらし) (garashi

  1. crow, raven

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: ô

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Yonaguni

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Kanji

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(Jinmeiyō kanji)

Etymology

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Kanji in this term
がらち
Jinmeiyō
Alternative spelling

Cognate with Japanese (karasu).

Noun

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(がらち) (garachi

  1. crow, raven