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U+70CF, 烏
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-70CF

[U+70CE]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+70D0]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 86, +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 竹口卜火 (HRYF), four-corner 27327)

Derived charactersEdit

Related charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

Wikidata has structured data related to:

Wikidata

  • KangXi: page 670, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 18998
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1079, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2202, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+70CF

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
   
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*qaː
*qaː
*qaː
*qaː
*qaː
*qaː, *qaːʔ
*qaː, *qaːʔ, *qas
*qaː
*qaːʔ
*qaːʔ, *qaːs
*qaːʔ

Pictogram (象形) – a bird. Compare (“bird”), of similar development.

EtymologyEdit

crow
Onomatopoeic (*qaː). Cognate with (OC *qraː, “crow; raven”), which retains the earlier vowel in Middle Chinese (*ʔˠa).
black, dark
Generalized from crow – “black as a crow”. Compare (OC *hmlɯːɡ, “black as ink”).
Interrogative pronoun
Related to the following interrogative pronouns with similar phonological shapes in Old Chinese (Wang, 1982), with differing suffixes:
  • (OC *qran, *ɢan, *qan)
  • (OC *qaː, *qaːɡs, *qaːɡ)
  • (OC *qaːn)

PronunciationEdit


Note: "wù" - only used in 烏拉乌拉 (wùlā).
Note:
  • ou1 - vernacular;
  • u1 - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /u⁵⁵/
    Harbin /u⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /u²¹/
    Jinan /u²¹³/
    Qingdao /vu²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /u²⁴/
    Xi'an /u²¹/
    Xining /v̩⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /vu⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /vu³¹/
    Ürümqi /vu⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /u⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /u⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /u⁵⁵/
    Kunming /u⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /u³¹/
    Hefei /u²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /vu¹¹/
    Pingyao /u¹³/
    Hohhot /vu³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /u⁵³/
    Suzhou /əu⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /ʔu³³/
    Wenzhou /v̠u³³/
    Hui Shexian /u³¹/
    Tunxi /u¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /u³³/
    Xiangtan /u³³/
    Gan Nanchang /u⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /vu⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /vu²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /wu⁵³/
    Nanning /wu⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /wu⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ɔ⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /u⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /u⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ou³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /u²³/
    /ɔu²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (23)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔuo/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔuo/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔo/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔɔ/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔo/
    Wang
    Li
    /u/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔuo/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ʔu › ‹ ʔu › ‹ ʔu ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ʔ]ˤa/ /*qˤa/ /*ʔˤa/
    English oh! crow, raven; black 烏桓, 烏丸 Wūhuán: Avars (W. Hàn)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 13077
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qaː/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. crow; raven; rook
    2. sun
    3. (literary or Hakka, Min) black; dark
    4. to dye black
    5. An interrogative pronoun with a variety of meanings, including “how”, “why”, “where”, etc.
    6. no; not
    7. A surname​.

    See alsoEdit

    Dialectal synonyms of (“black”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Tianjin
    Jinan
    Xi'an
    Wuhan
    Chengdu
    Yangzhou
    Hefei
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Yangjiang
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian
    Jin Taiyuan
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei
    Chaozhou
    Wu Shanghai
    Suzhou
    Wenzhou
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    • (less common)

    EtymologyEdit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
     
    (karasu): a raven, a raven.

    Compound of から (kara, caw, onomatopoeia, imitative of a crow's caw) +‎ (su, bird, ancient suffix appearing in certain bird names, possibly cognate with Korean (sae, bird)).[1] Compare the (su) in (uguisu), 杜鵑 (hototogisu), モズ (mozu).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana からす, katakana カラス, rōmaji karasu)

    1. a crow or a raven

    Usage notesEdit

    This is the most common reading for this character when used in isolation in modern Japanese.

    As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts, as カラス.

    SynonymsEdit

    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KikaiEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (karasu).

    KanjiEdit

    (hiragana がらさー, romaji garasā, hiragana がるさー, romaji garusā)

    NounEdit

    (hiragana がらさー, romaji garasā, hiragana がるさー, romaji garusā)

    1. crow, raven

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (o) (hangeul , revised o, McCune–Reischauer o, Yale o)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Northern Amami-OshimaEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (karasu).

    KanjiEdit

    (hiragana からすぃ, romaji karasi)

    NounEdit

    (hiragana からすぃ, romaji karasi)

    1. crow, raven

    Oki-No-ErabuEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (karasu).

    KanjiEdit

    (hiragana がらし, romaji garashi)

    NounEdit

    (hiragana がらし, romaji garashi)

    1. crow, raven

    OkinawanEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (karasu).

    KanjiEdit

    (hiragana がらし, romaji garashi)

    NounEdit

    (hiragana がらし, romaji garashi)

    1. crow, raven

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (ô, o, dặng)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    YonaguniEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (karasu).

    KanjiEdit

    (hiragana がらち, romaji garachi)

    NounEdit

    (hiragana がらち, romaji garachi)

    1. crow, raven