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U+70CF, 烏
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-70CF

[U+70CE]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+70D0]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

 
A black crow

(radical 86 +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 竹口卜火 (HRYF), four-corner 27327)

SynonymsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 670, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 18998
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1079, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2202, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+70CF

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
   
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*qaː
*qaː
*qaː
*qaː
*qaː
*qaː, *qaːʔ
*qaː, *qaːʔ, *qas
*qaː
*qaːʔ
*qaːʔ, *qaːs
*qaːʔ

Pictogram (象形) – a bird. Compare (“bird”), of similar development.

EtymologyEdit

“Crow”: Onomatopoeic (*qaː). Cognate with (OC *qraː, “crow; raven”), which retains the earlier vowel in Middle Chinese (*ʔˠa).

Sense “black, dark” generalized from crow – “black as a crow”. Compare (OC *hmlɯːɡ, “black as ink”).

Interrogative pronoun: Related to the following interrogative pronouns with similar phonological shapes in Old Chinese (Wang, 1982), with differing suffixes:

  • (OC *qran, *ɢan, *qan)
  • (OC *qaː, *qaːɡs, *qaːɡ)
  • (OC *qaːn)

PronunciationEdit


Note: "wù" - only used in 烏拉乌拉 (wùlā).

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /u⁵⁵/
Harbin /u⁴⁴/
Tianjin /u²¹/
Jinan /u²¹³/
Qingdao /vu²¹³/
Zhengzhou /u²⁴/
Xi'an /u²¹/
Xining /v̩⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /vu⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /vu³¹/
Ürümqi /vu⁴⁴/
Wuhan /u⁵⁵/
Chengdu /u⁵⁵/
Guiyang /u⁵⁵/
Kunming /u⁴⁴/
Nanjing /u³¹/
Hefei /u²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /vu¹¹/
Pingyao /u¹³/
Hohhot /vu³¹/
Wu Shanghai /u⁵³/
Suzhou /əu⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /ʔu³³/
Wenzhou /v̠u³³/
Hui Shexian /u³¹/
Tunxi /u¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /u³³/
Xiangtan /u³³/
Gan Nanchang /u⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /vu⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /vu²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /wu⁵³/
Nanning /wu⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /wu⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ɔ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /u⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /u⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ou³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /u²³/
/ɔu²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (34)
Final () (23)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔuo/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔuo/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔo/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔɔ/
Li
Rong
/ʔo/
Wang
Li
/u/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔuo/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ʔu › ‹ ʔu › ‹ ʔu ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ʔ]ˤa/ /*qˤa/ /*ʔˤa/
English oh! crow, raven; black 烏桓, 烏丸 Wūhuán: Avars (W. Hàn)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13077
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qaː/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. crow; raven; rook
  2. sun
  3. (literary or Hakka, Min) black; dark
  4. to dye black
  5. An interrogative pronoun with a variety of meanings, including “how”, “why”, “where”, etc.
  6. no; not
  7. A surname​.

See alsoEdit

Dialectal synonyms of (“black”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Tianjin
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan
Chengdu
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Xiamen
Quanzhou
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Chaozhou
Wu Shanghai
Suzhou
Wenzhou
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • (less common)

EtymologyEdit

 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
 
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
 
(karasu): a raven, a raven.

Compound of から (kara, caw, onomatopoeia) +‎ (su, bird, ancient suffix appearing in certain bird names, possibly cognate with Korean (sae, bird)).[1] Compare the (su) in (uguisu), 杜鵑 (hototogisu), モズ (mozu).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana からす, katakana カラス, rōmaji karasu)

  1. a crow or a raven
    • [1997 May 16, Amagi, Seimaru; Yozaburo, Kanari; Sato, Fumiya, “ファイル17 らん西ぎんさつじんけん [File 17: The French Silver Coin Murder Case ⑫]”, in きんいちしょうねんけん簿 [Young Kindaichi Case Files], volume 24 (fiction, in Japanese), Tokyo: Kodansha, ISBN 4-06-312406-1:
      せいだって‥⁉あっ‼ち‥‥ちがう!これは「トリ」じゃない‥‥‥「カラス」というになってるぞ‼
      そう!「トリ」と「カラス」はぼうぽんちがいだ つまりかのじょのデータは「ト」のフロッピーではなくあやまって
      ———「カ」のフロッピーに「」としてインプットされてしまったんだ‼]
      Sei no moji datte‥⁉ A'‼ Chi‥‥Chigau! Kore wa “tori” ja nai‥‥‥ “Karasu” to iu ji ni natte ru zo‼
      Sō! “Tori” to “karasu” wa bō ippon no chigau da Tsumari kanojo no dēta wa “to” no furoppī de wa naku ayamatte——— “ka” no furoppī ni “KARASUMA” to shite inputto sarete shimatta n da‼
      Characters in the surname‥⁉ Oh‼ S‥‥So that’s what it is! It’s not “tori”, the character for “bird”‥‥‥ It’s actually “karasu”, the character for “crow”‼
      That’s right! “Tori” and “karasu” shouldn’t be on the same column, which means her data were input to the “to” disk by accident——— “KARASUMA” is supposed to be on the “ka” disk‼

Usage notesEdit

This is the most common reading for this character when used in isolation in modern Japanese.

As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts, as カラス.

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

KikaiEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

Cognate with mainland Japanese (karasu).

KanjiEdit

(hiragana がらさー, romaji garasā, hiragana がるさー, romaji garusā)

NounEdit

(hiragana がらさー, romaji garasā, hiragana がるさー, romaji garusā)

  1. crow, raven

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(o) (hangeul , revised o, McCune-Reischauer o, Yale o)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Northern Amami-OshimaEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

Cognate with mainland Japanese (karasu).

KanjiEdit

(hiragana からすぃ, romaji karasi)

NounEdit

(hiragana からすぃ, romaji karasi)

  1. crow, raven

Oki-No-ErabuEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

Cognate with mainland Japanese (karasu).

KanjiEdit

(hiragana がらし, romaji garashi)

NounEdit

(hiragana がらし, romaji garashi)

  1. crow, raven

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(ô, o, dặng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

YonaguniEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

Cognate with mainland Japanese (karasu).

KanjiEdit

(hiragana がらち, romaji garachi)

NounEdit

(hiragana がらち, romaji garachi)

  1. crow, raven