See also: and
U+70CF, 烏
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-70CF

[U+70CE]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+70D0]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 86, +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 竹口卜火 (HRYF), four-corner 27327, composition丿⿹⿺)

Derived charactersEdit

Related charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 670, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 18998
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1079, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2202, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+70CF

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
   

Pictogram (象形) – a bird. Compare (“bird”), of similar development.

EtymologyEdit

“crow; black; dark”
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ka-n (crow) (STEDT). Cognate with (OC *qraː, “crow; raven”), which retains the earlier vowel in Middle Chinese (*ʔˠa), and (OC *la, *las, “jackdaw”).
Schuessler (2007) considers it to be onomatopoeic, and compares it with Proto-Loloish *akᴸ (crow).
“Black; dark” is a semantic extension of “crow” – “black as a crow”. Compare (OC *hmlɯːɡ, “black”), which is cognate with (OC *mlɯːɡ, “ink”).
interrogative pronoun
Related to the following interrogative pronouns with similar phonological shapes in Old Chinese (Wang, 1982), with differing suffixes:
  • (OC *qan, *qran, “how; where”)
  • (OC *qaː, “how”)
  • (OC *qaːn, “where; how; why”)

PronunciationEdit


Note: "wù" - only used in 烏拉乌拉 (wùla).
Note:
  • ou1 - vernacular;
  • u1 - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /u⁵⁵/
    Harbin /u⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /u²¹/
    Jinan /u²¹³/
    Qingdao /vu²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /u²⁴/
    Xi'an /u²¹/
    Xining /v̩⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /vu⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /vu³¹/
    Ürümqi /vu⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /u⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /u⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /u⁵⁵/
    Kunming /u⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /u³¹/
    Hefei /u²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /vu¹¹/
    Pingyao /u¹³/
    Hohhot /vu³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /u⁵³/
    Suzhou /əu⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /ʔu³³/
    Wenzhou /v̠u³³/
    Hui Shexian /u³¹/
    Tunxi /u¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /u³³/
    Xiangtan /u³³/
    Gan Nanchang /u⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /vu⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /vu²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /wu⁵³/
    Nanning /wu⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /wu⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ɔ⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /u⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /u⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ou³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /u²³/
    /ɔu²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (23)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔuo/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔuo/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔo/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔɔ/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔo/
    Wang
    Li
    /u/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔuo/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ʔu › ‹ ʔu › ‹ ʔu ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ʔ]ˁa/ /*qˁa/ /*ʔˁa/
    English oh! crow, raven; black 烏桓, 烏丸 Wūhuán: Avars (W. Hàn)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 13077
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qaː/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. crow; raven; rook
    2. sun
    3. (literary or Hakka, Min) black; dark
    4. to dye black
    5. An interrogative pronoun with a variety of meanings, including “how”, “why”, “where”, etc.
    6. no; not
    7. A surname​.
    8. () Synonym of 大肚, a river on Taiwan Island

    SynonymsEdit

    See alsoEdit

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    からす
    Jinmeiyō
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    からすカラス
    [noun] a crow or raven
    Alternative spellings
    , , からす
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Jinmeiyō
    goon

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʔuo).

    The goon pronunciation, so likely the initial borrowing.

    PronunciationEdit

    AffixEdit

    () (u

    1. crow; raven
    2. black; dark
    3. (figuratively) sun
    4. A Chinese interrogative for rhetorical questions.
      ()(ゆう)u(literally “not-have”) nonexistence; nothing
    Derived termsEdit

    KikaiEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (hiragana がらさー, romaji garasā, hiragana がるさー, romaji garusā)

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with Japanese (karasu).

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana がらさー, romaji garasā, hiragana がるさー, romaji garusā)

    1. crow, raven

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (o) (hangeul , revised o, McCune–Reischauer o, Yale o)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Northern Amami-OshimaEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (hiragana からすぃ, romaji karasi)

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with Japanese (karasu).

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana からすぃ, romaji karasi)

    1. crow, raven

    Oki-No-ErabuEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (hiragana がらし, romaji garashi)

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with Japanese (karasu).

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana がらし, romaji garashi)

    1. crow, raven

    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (hiragana がらし, romaji garashi)

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with Japanese (karasu).

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana がらし, romaji garashi)

    1. crow, raven

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (ô, o, dặng)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    YonaguniEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (hiragana がらち, romaji garachi)

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with Japanese (karasu).

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana がらち, romaji garachi)

    1. crow, raven