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U+7259, 牙
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7259

[U+7258]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+725A]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 92 +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 一女木竹 (MVDH), four-corner 10240)

  1. Kangxi radical #92, .

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 695, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19909
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1108, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1419, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+7259

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
     
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
ljaː, *laː
ljaː
ŋraː
ŋraː
ŋraː, *ŋraːs
ŋraː, *hŋraː
ŋraː, *ŋraːs
ŋraːʔ
ŋraːʔ
ŋraːʔ
ŋraːs
ŋraːs
ŋraːs
ŋraːs
hŋraː
hŋraː
hŋraː
hŋraː
qraː
laː

PronunciationEdit


Note: ngāi - synaeresis of 牙齒 used alone or in some compounds.
Note:
  • gê/gêe - vernacular (“tooth; fang; ivory; broker”);
  • gâ - literary (“screw thread”).

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ia³⁵/
Harbin /ia²⁴/
Tianjin /iɑ⁴⁵/
Jinan /ia⁴²/
Qingdao /ia⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ia⁴²/
Xi'an /nia²⁴/
Xining /ia²⁴/
Yinchuan /ia⁵³/
Lanzhou /ia⁵³/
Ürümqi /ia⁵¹/
Wuhan /ia²¹³/
Chengdu /ia³¹/
Guiyang /ia²¹/
Kunming /ia̠³¹/
Nanjing /iɑ²⁴/
Hefei /ia⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /nia¹¹/
/ia¹¹/
Pingyao /ȵiɑ¹³/
Hohhot /ia³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ŋa²³/
/ɦia²³/
Suzhou /ŋɑ¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦiɑ²¹³/
Wenzhou /ŋo³¹/
Hui Shexian /ŋa⁴⁴/
Tunxi /ŋɔ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ia¹³/
/ŋa¹³/
Xiangtan /ŋɒ¹²/
Gan Nanchang /ŋɑ⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /ŋa¹¹/
Taoyuan /ŋɑ¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /ŋa²¹/
Nanning /ŋa²¹/
Hong Kong /ŋa²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ga³⁵/
/ge³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋa⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋa³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ŋẽ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /za³¹/
/ŋɛ³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (31)
Final () (98)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋˠa/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋᵚa/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋa/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋaɨ/
Li
Rong
/ŋa/
Wang
Li
/ŋa/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋa/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngæ ›
Old
Chinese
/*m-ɢˤ<r>a/
English tooth

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 14177
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋraː/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. (anatomy) tooth
    / 齿  ―  chǐ  ―  tooth
  2. (anatomy) fang; tusk; canine tooth
      ―  jiān  ―  fang
  3. (anatomy) ivory; tusk of elephant
      ―  diāo  ―  ivory sculpture
  4. screw thread
  5. (historical) broker

SynonymsEdit

Dialectal synonyms of 牙齒 (“tooth”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 牙齒
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan 牙齒才調子
Chengdu 牙齒
Yangzhou 牙子
Hefei 牙齒
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang 牙齒
Hakka Meixian 牙齒
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 牙齒
Liudui (S. Sixian) 牙齒
Hsinchu (Hailu) 牙齒
Dongshi (Dabu) 牙齒
Zhuolan (Raoping) 牙齒
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 牙齒
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou 牙齒
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Xiamen 喙齒
Quanzhou 喙齒
Zhangzhou 喙齒
Taipei 喙齒
Kaohsiung 喙齒
Philippines (Manila) 喙齒
Chaozhou
Wu Shanghai 牙子牙齒
Suzhou 牙子
Wenzhou 牙齒
Xiang Changsha 牙齒
Shuangfeng 牙齒

CompoundsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese:  () (ge);  () (ga)
  • Korean: (, a)
  • Vietnamese: nha ()

Others:


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. tusk, fang

ReadingsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Appears in the Man'yōshū.[1]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji ki)

  1. (obsolete) fang, tusk, tooth (particularly the canine)
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 9, poem 1809); text here
      喫建怒而
      かみたけびて
      ki kami takebite
      ferociously gnashing teeth
Usage notesEdit

Although this term is no longer used in isolation, it does persist in certain compounds.

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
きば
Grade: S
kun’yomi

Compound of Old Japanese elements (ki, fang, tusk) +‎ (ha, tooth).[2] The ha changes to ba as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana きば, rōmaji kiba)

  1. fang, tusk, tooth (particularly the canines)
  2. (falconry) dog (primarily used for counting hunting dogs)
Usage notesEdit

This is the most common term for fang in modern Japanese.

Derived termsEdit
IdiomsEdit
See alsoEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
かび
Grade: S
kun’yomi

Cognate with, and probably the noun derivation of, verb 黴びる (kabiru, to go moldy), from the root idea of something sprouting.[2] Used in the Kojiki.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana かび, rōmaji kabi)

  1. (obsolete) a plant sprout, a plant bud
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
kun’yomi

Non-standard alternate spelling for (ha, tooth).[2]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji ha)

  1. Alternative spelling of tooth

Etymology 5Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (ngæ). Compare modern Min Nan reading ge5.

The goon reading, so probably the reading as first imported into Japanese.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji ge)

  1. an animal's fang or tusk
  2. an elephant's tusk: ivory
  3. a tooth
Usage notesEdit

The tooth meaning is much more commonly expressed using the word (ha).

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 6Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (ngæ). Compare modern Cantonese reading ngaa4.

The kan'on reading, so probably a later importation.

PronunciationEdit

AffixEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji ga)

  1. an animal's fang or tusk
  2. an elephant's tusk: ivory
  3. a tooth
Usage notesEdit

The ga reading is only used in compounds, and is never used in isolation.

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(a) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer a, Yale a)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(nha, hữu)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.