Open main menu
U+77ED, 短
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-77ED

[U+77EC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+77EE]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 111, +7, 12 strokes, cangjie input 人大一口廿 (OKMRT), four-corner 81418, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 824, character 33
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 23978
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1237, character 22
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2584, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+77ED

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms ⿰矢卜 second round simplified

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*toː
*toː, *roː
*toː, *doːs
*toːs
*tʰoː
*doː
*doːs
*doːs, *dos
*doːs
*doːs
*doːs
*doːs
*doːs
*doːs
*doːs
*djoʔ
*djoʔ
*toːnʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *toːnʔ): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *doːs).

EtymologyEdit

The Proto-Min reconstructed form is *toiᴮ (Bodman, 1980). The relationship of this to the -n forms in other dialects is unclear and two theories exist:

  • Old Chinese *tˤorʔ divergently developed into (1) *toj in southeastern China, and (2) *ton elsewhere (Baxter and Sagart, 2014). Compare also:
    • (OC *tˤor) vs (OC *[d]or-s)
    • (OC *[s]ˤorʔ-s)
    • (OC *k.rˤorʔ).
  • Proto-Min may represent the original Old Chinese form, and the forms in other Chinese varieties are due to confusion with (OC *toːnʔ, *toːns, *doːnʔ, “to cut”) (Schuessler, 2007).

STEDT sets up two roots for this: Proto-Sino-Tibetan *t(j)u(ŋ/n) (short), whence Burmese တောင်း (taung:, short (as in garment)), and *dəw (short), whence Burmese တို (tui, short), Mizo tawi (short).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • dōi - colloquial (“short (of distance)”);
  • duāng - literary (“short; deficient; shortcoming”).
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • té/tér - colloquial;
    • toán - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (5)
    Final () (62)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /tuɑnX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /tʷɑnX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /tuɑnX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /twanX/
    Li
    Rong
    /tuɑnX/
    Wang
    Li
    /tuɑnX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /tuɑnX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    duǎn
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    duǎn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ twanX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tˁorʔ/
    English short

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 2480
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*toːnʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. short (of distance)
      Antonyms: (cháng)
    2. short (of time); brief
    3. deficient; lacking
    4. weakness; shortcoming; mistake

    See alsoEdit

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. short, brief

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • New Nelson: 3982
    • Halpern: 3277
    • Halpern Learners: 801
    • Heisig: 1442
    • Tuttle Kanji Dictionary: 3d9.27
    1. Source: EDICT and KANJIDIC files licensed by the Electronic Dictionaries Research Group.


    Kanji in this term
    たん
    Grade: 3
    on’yomi

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (twanX, short).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana たん, rōmaji tan)

    1. fault, weak point
    2. (music) minor

    AntonymsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (dan) (hangeul , McCune–Reischauer tan, Yale tan)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    CompoundsEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (đoản, đuỗn, ngắn, vắn)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.