See also:
U+7CD6, 糖
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7CD6

[U+7CD5]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7CD7]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 119, +10, 16 strokes, cangjie input 火木戈中口 (FDILR), four-corner 90967, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 911, character 38
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 27070
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1338, character 29
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3157, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+7CD6

ChineseEdit

trad. /
simp.
alternative forms 𰪩 second round simplified
醣 - “saccharide

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
 

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *l'aːŋ): semantic (rice) + phonetic (OC *ɡl'aːŋ).

EtymologyEdit

Original meaning was “sweet rice cake” or “sugar syrup”. Cognate with (OC *ljaːŋ).

Compare Proto-Lingao lhaŋ2 ("sugar"), whence Lincheng /haŋ˧˧/, Qiongshan /liaŋ˩˧/.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • tong4 - “sugar”;
  • tong4-2 - “candy”.
Note:
  • hong3 - “sugar”;
  • hong3* - “candy”.
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • thn̂g - vernacular;
    • thông - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /tʰɑŋ³⁵/
    Harbin /tʰaŋ²⁴/
    Tianjin /tʰɑŋ⁴⁵/
    Jinan /tʰaŋ⁴²/
    Qingdao /tʰaŋ⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /tʰaŋ⁴²/
    Xi'an /tʰaŋ²⁴/
    Xining /tʰɔ̃²⁴/
    Yinchuan /tʰɑŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /tʰɑ̃⁵³/
    Ürümqi /tʰɑŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /tʰaŋ²¹³/
    Chengdu /tʰaŋ³¹/
    Guiyang /tʰaŋ²¹/
    Kunming /tʰã̠¹/
    Nanjing /tʰaŋ²⁴/
    Hefei /tʰɑ̃⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /tʰɒ̃¹¹/
    Pingyao /tʰɑŋ¹³/
    /tɑŋ¹³/ 黑~
    Hohhot /tʰɑ̃³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /dɑ̃²³/
    Suzhou /dɑ̃¹³/
    Hangzhou /dɑŋ²¹³/
    Wenzhou /duɔ³¹/
    Hui Shexian /tʰa⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /tʰau¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /tan¹³/
    Xiangtan /dɔn¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /tʰɔŋ²⁴/
    Hakka Meixian /tʰoŋ¹¹/
    Taoyuan /tʰoŋ¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /tʰɔŋ²¹/
    Nanning /tʰɔŋ²¹/
    Hong Kong /tʰɔŋ²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /tʰɔŋ³⁵/
    /tʰŋ̍³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /tʰouŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /tʰɔŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /tʰɯŋ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ho³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (7)
    Final () (101)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /dɑŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /dɑŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /dɑŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /daŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /dɑŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /dɑŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /dʱɑŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    táng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    táng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dang ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.lˁaŋ/ (no pre-Qín exx)
    English sugar

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 3961
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*l'aːŋ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. sugar
      尿病  ―  tángniàobìng  ―  diabetes
      [Cantonese]  ―  tong4 seoi2 [Jyutping]  ―  sugar water
    2. candy; sweets
      棒棒  ―  bàngbàngtáng  ―  lollipop
      冇益 [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
      tong4-2 sik6 dak1 do1 mou5 jik1. [Jyutping]
      Eating too much candy is unhealthy.
    3. (organic chemistry) saccharide; carbohydrate
        ―  duōtáng  ―  polysaccharide
    4. to preserve food in alcohol or alcohol dregs
    5. (Internet slang, figurative) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
        ―  táng  ―  (please add an English translation of this example)
    6. (transgender slang, figurative) HRT (hormone replacement therapy) drugs, espcially pills
        ―  chītáng  ―  to undergo HRT (literally “to eat candy”)

    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (とう) ()
    • Korean: (, dang)
    • Vietnamese: đường ()

    Others:

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    Kanji in this term
    とう
    Grade: 6
    on’yomi

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (dang, sugar).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (とう) ( (historical kana たう)

    1. sugar

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun (yeot dang))

    1. Hanja form? of (sugar).

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun (yeot tang))

    1. Hanja form? of (sugar).

    CompoundsEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (đường)

    1. Hán tự form of đường (sugar).