See also:
U+7D04, 約
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7D04

[U+7D03]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7D05]

Translingual edit

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 120, +3, 9 strokes, cangjie input 女火心戈 (VFPI) or 女火心一 (VFPM), four-corner 27920, composition )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 915, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 27242
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1343, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3364, character 15
  • Unihan data for U+7D04

Chinese edit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms 𪪊

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *ʔlewɢs, *ʔlewɢ) : semantic (rope) + phonetic (OC *pljewɢ, *bljewɢ).

Pronunciation 1 edit


Note: yāo - only the sense of “to weigh on a balance or scale”.
Note:
  • iók - literary;
  • ióh - vernacular.
Note:
  • iok/iak - literary;
  • ioh - vernacular.
Note:
  • iag4 - literary;
  • ioh4/iêh4 - vernacular.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /yɛ⁵⁵/
Harbin /iau⁴⁴/
/yɛ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /ye²¹/
Jinan /yə²¹³/
Qingdao /yə⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /yo²⁴/
Xi'an /yo²¹/
Xining /yu⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ye¹³/
Lanzhou /yə¹³/
Ürümqi /yɤ²¹³/
Wuhan /io²¹³/
Chengdu /yo³¹/
Guiyang /io²¹/
Kunming /io³¹/
Nanjing /ioʔ⁵/
Hefei /yɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /yəʔ²/
Pingyao /yʌʔ¹³/
Hohhot /yaʔ⁴³/ 大~
/iɔ³¹/ ~一~
Wu Shanghai /iaʔ⁵/
Suzhou /iɑʔ⁵/
Hangzhou /ʔiɑʔ⁵/
Wenzhou /j̠a²¹³/
Hui Shexian /iɔʔ²¹/
Tunxi /io⁵/
Xiang Changsha /io²⁴/
Xiangtan /io²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /iɔʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /iok̚¹/
Taoyuan /ʒok̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jœk̚²/
Nanning /jœk̚³³/
Hong Kong /jœk̚²/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /iɔk̚³²/
/ioʔ³²/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /yɔʔ²³/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /iɔ²⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /iak̚²/
/ioʔ²/
Haikou (Hainanese) /iɔk̚⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (34)
Final () (107)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter 'jak
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔɨɐk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔiɐk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔiɑk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔɨak̚/
Li
Rong
/ʔiak̚/
Wang
Li
/ĭak̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔi̯ak̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yue
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
joek3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yuē
Middle
Chinese
‹ ʔjak ›
Old
Chinese
/*[q](r)ewk/
English bind (v.), make an agreement

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 11201
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ʔlewɢ/

Definitions edit

  1. to bundle up; to bind
  2. rope; cord
  3. to restrain; to limit; to keep under control
  4. to make an appointment; to arrange
  5. appointment; meeting; arrangement
  6. treaty; agreement; covenant; pact; contract
  7. to invite or ask in advance
    明天一起吃飯知道沒有時間 [MSC, trad.]
    明天一起吃饭知道没有时间 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ xiǎng yuē nǐ míngtiān yīqǐ qù chīfàn, bù zhīdào nǐ yǒu méiyǒu shíjiān. [Pinyin]
    I'd like to invite you out to have a meal tomorrow, if you have the time.
  8. to hinder; to block
  9. to save; to economise
  10. frugal; economical; thrifty
  11. brief; concise; succinct
  12. poor; humble; low-ranking
  13. (mathematics) to reduce (a fraction)
  14. to prepare; to equip
  15. to seek; to pursue
  16. to estimate; to approximate; to reckon
  17. (colloquial) to weigh (on a balance or scale)
  18. about; approximately
    220大卡220大卡  ―  yuē 220 dàkǎ  ―  Approximately 220 kilocalories.
  19. (Hong Kong, historical) district (of the City of Victoria)
    四環九四环九 [Cantonese]  ―  sei3 waan4 gau2 joek3 [Jyutping]  ―  (please add an English translation of this usage example)
  20. (Hong Kong, historical) pact, group of villages (clarification of this definition is needed)
    大埔大埔 [Cantonese]  ―  daai6 bou3 cat1 joek3 [Jyutping]  ―  the seven village groups of Tai Po

Compounds edit

Descendants edit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Vietnamese: ước ()

Pronunciation 2 edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (34)
Final () (91)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter 'jiewH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔiᴇuH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔiɛuH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔjæuH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔiawH/
Li
Rong
/ʔiɛuH/
Wang
Li
/ĭɛuH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔi̯ɛuH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yào
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jiu3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yào
Middle
Chinese
‹ ʔjiewH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[q]ewk-s/
English bond, agreement (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 11181
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ʔlewɢs/

Definitions edit

  1. Alternative form of (yào, gist; essentials)

Pronunciation 3 edit


Definitions edit

  1. cord for the string of a stringed instrument

References edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. contract, promise
  2. to contract, to shorten
  3. approximately, roughly

Readings edit

Compounds edit


Kanji in this term
やく
Grade: 4
on’yomi

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

(やく) (yaku

  1. about, approximately
    (やく)(いっ)(げつ)
    yaku iggagetsu
    approximately one month
    宇宙(うちゅう)直径(ちょっけい)(やく) 930(きゅうひゃくさんじゅう)(おく)光年(こうねん)だ。
    Uchū no chokkei wa yaku kyūhyakusanjū-oku kōnen da.
    The diameter of the universe is some 93 billion light years.

References edit

  1. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN

Korean edit

Etymology edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Middle Korean readings, if any”)

Pronunciation edit

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 맺을 (maejeul yak))

  1. Hanja form? of (contract, promise).
  2. Hanja form? of (approximately, roughly).

Compounds edit

Vietnamese edit

Chữ Hán edit

: Hán Việt readings: ước, yêu

  1. chữ Hán form of ước (contract, promise).
  2. chữ Hán form of ước (approximately, roughly).
  3. chữ Hán form of ước (to wish).