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Kanji in this term

Grade: 3



From Old Japanese verb wopu.[1][2][3]

The root verb was ambitransitive, with both transitive and intransitive senses conjugated using the 下二段活用 (shimo nidan katsuyō, lower bigrade conjugation) pattern. Over time, the two senses differentiated as the intransitive evolved into modern 終わる (owaru, also derivable as the spontaneous or passive -aru ending from a putative but unrecorded 四段活用 (yodan katsuyō), the full quadrigrade conjugation pattern), while the transitive evolved into modern 終える (oeru, with the 下一段活用 (shimo ichidan katsuyō, lower monograde conjugation) pattern, also known as "type 2", and the expected historical development for shimo nidan verbs).

Probably not related to superficially similar 追う (ou, ancient opu, to follow, quadrigrade conjugation in older Japanese), considering the distinct lack of initial /w/ in ancient spellings.



終える (transitive, ichidan conjugation, hiragana おえる, rōmaji oeru, historical hiragana をへる)

  1. to end (something), to conclude (something), to finish (something), to quit (something)




Related termsEdit


  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  4. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  5. 5.0 5.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  6. ^ Hirayama, Tetsuo (1960) 全国アクセント辞典 (Nationwide Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: 東京堂,.