Last modified on 18 April 2015, at 03:57

自由

ChineseEdit

 
from; self; oneself; since
 
follow; from; it is for...to; reason; cause; because of; due to; by; to; to leave it (to sb)
simp. and trad.
(自由)

PronunciationEdit


Middle Chinese pronunciation (自由, reconstructed)
Character (自), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 從 (15)
Final: 脂
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie: 疾二切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ziɪH/ /d͡zʱiH/ /d͡ziH/ /d͡ziH/ /d͡ziH/ /d͡ziH/ /d͡zjɪH/
Character (由), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 以 (36)
Final: 尤
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 以周切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/jɨu/ /i̯ə̯u/ /iu/ /jiu/ /juw/ /jĭəu/ /iəu/

NounEdit

自由

  1. freedom; liberty
  2. (philosophy) liberty

AntonymsEdit

  • (liberty, in philosophy): 必然 (bìrán)

AdjectiveEdit

自由

  1. free; unconstrained
    自由發表意見 / 自由发表意见  ―  zìyóu fābiǎo yìjiàn  ―  express one's views unreservedly

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic (自由):


JapaneseEdit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
ゆう
Grade: 3
on'yomi

EtymologyEdit

Apparently first imported from Middle Chinese compound 自由 (*d͡ʑi *iou) with an original meaning of roughly arising from oneself. Repurposed in the 1860s by Fukuzawa Yukichi as a translation of the English freedom or liberty, as an extension of the original meaning: freedom to act according to one's own thoughts, without restriction.[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

自由 (-na inflection, hiragana じゆう, romaji jiyū, historical hiragana じいう)

  1. free (as in freedom)
  2. flexible

InflectionEdit

NounEdit

自由 (hiragana じゆう, romaji jiyū, historical hiragana じいう)

  1. freedom, liberty
    自由 (じゆう)のために (たたか)う。
    Jiyū no tame ni tatakau.
    We will fight for freedom.
  2. demand (for goods or services)
  3. (euphemistic) a toilet, a restroom

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 1866: 西洋事情 (Seiyō Jijō, “Things Western”), Fukuzawa Yukichi, digital version (in Japanese), http://project.lib.keio.ac.jp/dg_kul/fukuzawa_title.php?id=3
  2. ^ 2004: 「明治の日本が作り出した新しい言語」 (Meiji no Nihon ga Tsukuridashita Atarashii Gengo, “The New Language Created by Meiji Japan”), Takeshi Ozeki (in Japanese), http://hermes-ir.lib.hit-u.ac.jp/rs/bitstream/10086/8702/1/hogaku0030301790.pdf, page 11 of the PDF.
  3. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  • 2002, Ineko Kondō; Fumi Takano; Mary E Althaus; et. al., Shogakukan Progressive Japanese-English Dictionary, Third Edition, Tokyo: Shōgakukan, ISBN 4095102535.
  • 1998, 広辞苑 (Kōjien), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, ISBN 4000801112
  • 2002, Yasuo Kitahara, 明鏡国語辞典 (Meikyō Kokugo Jiten), First Edition (in Japanese), Tokyo: Taishūkan Shoten, ISBN 4469021067

KoreanEdit

Hanja in this word

NounEdit

自由 (jayu) (hangeul 자유)

  1. Hanja form? of 자유, “freedom, liberty”.

VietnameseEdit

Hán tự in this word

NounEdit

自由

  1. Hán tự form of tự do, "freedom, liberty"