自由

CantoneseEdit

simpl. and trad.

NounEdit

自由 (traditional and simplified, Jyutping zi6 jau4)

  1. freedom

JapaneseEdit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
ゆう
Grade: 3
on'yomi

EtymologyEdit

Apparently first imported from Middle Chinese compound 自由 (*d͡ʑi *iou) with an original meaning of roughly arising from oneself. Repurposed in the 1860s by Fukuzawa Yukichi as a translation of the English freedom or liberty, as an extension of the original meaning: freedom to act according to one's own thoughts, without restriction.[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

自由 (-na inflection, hiragana じゆう, historical hiragana じいう, romaji jiyū)

  1. free (as in freedom)
  2. flexible

InflectionEdit

NounEdit

自由 (hiragana じゆう, historical hiragana じいう, romaji jiyū)

  1. freedom, liberty
    自由 (じゆう)のために (たたか)う。
    Jiyū no tame ni tatakau.
    We will fight for freedom.
  2. demand (for goods or services)
  3. (euphemistic) a toilet, a restroom

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 1866: 西洋事情 (Seiyō Jijō, “Things Western”), Fukuzawa Yukichi, digital version (in Japanese), http://project.lib.keio.ac.jp/dg_kul/fukuzawa_title.php?id=3
  2. ^ 2004: 「明治の日本が作り出した新しい言語」 (Meiji no Nihon ga Tsukuridashita Atarashii Gengo, “The New Language Created by Meiji Japan”), Takeshi Ozeki (in Japanese), http://hermes-ir.lib.hit-u.ac.jp/rs/bitstream/10086/8702/1/hogaku0030301790.pdf, page 11 of the PDF.
  3. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  • 2002, Ineko Kondō; Fumi Takano; Mary E Althaus; et. al., Shogakukan Progressive Japanese-English Dictionary, Third Edition, Tokyo: Shōgakkan, ISBN 4095102535.
  • 1998, 広辞苑 (Kōjien), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, ISBN 4000801112
  • 2002, Yasuo Kitahara, 明鏡国語辞典 (Meikyō Kokugo Jiten), First Edition (in Japanese), Tokyo: Taishūkan Shoten, ISBN 4469021067

KoreanEdit

Hanja in this word

NounEdit

自由 (jayu) (hangeul 자유)

  1. Hanja form? of 자유, “freedom”.

MandarinEdit

simpl. and trad.

PronunciationEdit

Mandarin (Standard Chinese, Beijing)
Pinyin zìyóu
Zhuyin ㄗˋ ㄧㄡˊ
IPA (key) /t͡sz̩⁵¹ i̯oʊ̯³⁵/
Audio
(file)

NounEdit

自由 (traditional and simplified, Pinyin zìyóu)

  1. freedom

Derived termsEdit

Last modified on 19 April 2014, at 07:01