Contents

ChineseEdit

 
from; self; oneself; since
 
follow; from; it is for...to; reason; cause; because of; due to; by; to; to leave it (to sb)
simp. and trad.
(自由)

EtymologyEdit

Attestable from at least the Han dynasty; in modern Chinese, widespread use as Wasei kango (和製漢語), borrowing from Japanese 自由 (じゆう)(jiyū, freedom, liberty).

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (15) (36)
Final () (15) (136)
Tone (調) Departing (H) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ziɪH/ /jɨu/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡ziH/ /jiu/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡zjɪH/ /iəu/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡ziH/ /juw/
Li
Rong
/d͡ziH/ /iu/
Wang
Li
/d͡ziH/ /jĭəu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡zʱiH/ /i̯ə̯u/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yóu

AdjectiveEdit

自由

  1. free; unconstrained
    現在感到心裡自由 [MSC, trad.]
    现在感到心里自由 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ xiànzài gǎndào xīnli hěn zìyóu. [Pinyin]
    I feel really free now.

AdverbEdit

自由

  1. freely; unreservedly
    自由發表意見 / 自由发表意见  ―  zìyóu fābiǎo yìjiàn  ―  to express one's views unreservedly

NounEdit

自由

  1. freedom; liberty
    婚姻自由  ―  hūnyīn zìyóu  ―  freedom of marriage
    出版自由  ―  chūbǎn zìyóu  ―  freedom of publication

Derived termsEdit


JapaneseEdit

EtymologyEdit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
ゆう
Grade: 3
on'yomi

Apparently first imported from Middle Chinese compound 自由(dzijH yuw) with an original meaning of roughly arising from oneself. Repurposed in the 1860s by Fukuzawa Yukichi as a translation of the English freedom or liberty, as an extension of the original meaning: freedom to act according to one's own thoughts, without restriction.[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

自由 ‎(-na inflection, hiragana じゆう, romaji jiyū, historical hiragana じいう)

  1. free (as in freedom)
  2. flexible

InflectionEdit

NounEdit

自由 ‎(hiragana じゆう, romaji jiyū, historical hiragana じいう)

  1. freedom, liberty
    自由 (じゆう)のために (たたか)う。
    Jiyū no tame ni tatakau.
    We will fight for freedom.
    • 2013 July 10, Revo (lyrics and music), “紅蓮の弓矢 [Crimson Bow and Arrow]”, in 自由への進撃 [March Towards Freedom][1] (CD, in Japanese), performed by Linked Horizon:
      屍踏み越えて 進む意思を 嗤う豚よ
      家畜の安寧 …虚偽の繁栄 …死せる餓狼の『自由』を!
      Shikabane fumikoete susumu ishi o warau buta yo
      Kachiku no annei …kyogi no han'ei …shiseru garō no “jiyū” o!
      You pigs who sneer at our will to step over corpses and march onwards
      Enjoy the peace of livestock …false prosperity …the “freedom” of starving wolves!
  2. demand (for goods or services)
  3. (euphemistic) a toilet, a restroom

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 1866: 西洋事情 (Seiyō Jijō, “Things Western”), Fukuzawa Yukichi, digital version (in Japanese), http://project.lib.keio.ac.jp/dg_kul/fukuzawa_title.php?id=3
  2. ^ 2004: 「明治の日本が作り出した新しい言語」 (Meiji no Nihon ga Tsukuridashita Atarashii Gengo, “The New Language Created by Meiji Japan”), Takeshi Ozeki (in Japanese), http://hermes-ir.lib.hit-u.ac.jp/rs/bitstream/10086/8702/1/hogaku0030301790.pdf, page 11 of the PDF.
  3. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  4. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  5. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13143-0
  • 2002, Ineko Kondō; Fumi Takano; Mary E Althaus; et. al., Shogakukan Progressive Japanese-English Dictionary, Third Edition, Tokyo: Shōgakukan, ISBN 4095102535.
  • 1998, 広辞苑 (Kōjien), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, ISBN 4000801112
  • 2002, Yasuo Kitahara, 明鏡国語辞典 (Meikyō Kokugo Jiten), First Edition (in Japanese), Tokyo: Taishūkan Shoten, ISBN 4469021067

KoreanEdit

Hanja in this term

NounEdit

自由 ‎(jayu) ‎(hangeul 자유)

  1. Hanja form? of 자유, “freedom; liberty”.

VietnameseEdit

Hán tự in this word

NounEdit

自由

  1. Hán tự form of tự do, “freedom; liberty