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JapaneseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 4
kun’yomi

Modern form of Old Japanese adjective よし (yoshi).[1][2][3]

/joɕi/ (classical 終止形 (shūshikei) or terminal form) → /joki/ (classical 連体形 (rentaikei) or attributive form) → /joi/ (modern shūshikei and rentaikei)

Alternative formsEdit

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

良い (-i inflection, hiragana よい, rōmaji yoi)

  1. good
    Antonyms: 悪い, 駄目
Usage notesEdit
  • Most often written in hiragana. The kanji spelling is generally reserved for more formal writing.
InflectionEdit
Derived termsEdit

SuffixEdit

良い (hiragana よい, rōmaji -yoi)

  1. easy
Usage notesEdit
  • Most often written in hiragana. The kanji spelling is generally reserved for more formal writing.
  • Attaches to the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of a verb. Example:
     () ()yomiyoieasy to read
However, in modern Japanese, the adjective 安い, 易い (yasui, easy, easygoing) is more commonly used to express this meaning.

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
Grade: 4

Phonetic shift from the Old Japanese yoshi form of yoi above. Already in use as early as the Nihon Shoki, circa 720,[1][2][3] then becoming common in eastern Japanese from the Edo period.[2] This form is now obsolete, though it may still be found in some dialects.

/joɕi/ (classical 終止形 (shūshikei) or terminal form) → /eɕi/ (classical 終止形 (shūshikei) or terminal form) → /eki/ (classical 連体形 (rentaikei) or attributive form) → /ei/ (modern shūshikei and rentaikei)

Alternative formsEdit

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

良い (-i inflection, hiragana えい, rōmaji ei)

  1. (obsolete) good

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 4
kun’yomi

Phonetic shift from ei above. This is now the most common form used in casual spoken Japanese.[1][2][3]

/ei//ii/

Alternative formsEdit

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

良い (-i inflection, hiragana いい, rōmaji ii)

  1. (colloquial, informal) good
Usage notesEdit
  • Most often written in hiragana. The kanji spelling is generally reserved for more formal writing.
  • The ii form does not inflect — it is only used in the 終止形 (shūshikei, terminal form) and 連体形 (rentaikei, attributive form) of ii. All other grammatical forms are based on the yoi form above. Compare the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or adverbial form) yoku or the 過去形 (kakokei, past tense) yokatta: there is no *iku or *ikatta form.
InflectionEdit
Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, ISBN 4-09-501211-0
  4. 4.0 4.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3