Japanese edit

Etymology edit

Kanji in this term
Grade: 3

From Old Japanese. First cited to the Nihon Shoki of 720 CE,[1] and likely extant earlier as the intransitive verb 苦しむ (kurushimu, to suffer, to be stressed out) was first cited to the Kojiki of 712 CE.[1]

Analyzable as a compound of bound morpheme ⟨kuru-⟩ (indicates stress or temper) +‎ ⟨-si⟩ (adjectivizing suffix, gives object the possession of the adjective's quality), ultimately from Proto-Japonic *kuru. Compare 狂う (kuruu, to be mad, to get angry).[2] Compare also Miyako (guri) against Miyako 悲す (kanasu, Japanese 悲しい (kanashii, sad)).

The modern form kurushii is derived from the 連体形 (rentaikei, attributive form) of Early Middle Japanese adjective 苦し (kurushi), with the medial /-k-/ falling out.

Pronunciation edit

  • Tokyo pitch accent of inflected forms of "苦しい"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Continuative (連用形) 苦しく しく
Terminal (終止形) 苦しい るし [kùrúshíꜜì]
Attributive (連体形) 苦しい るし [kùrúshíꜜì]
Key constructions
Informal negative 苦しくない しくない
Informal past 苦しかった しかった
Informal negative past 苦しくなかった しくなかった
Formal 苦しいです るしいです [kùrúshíꜜìdèsù]
Conjunctive 苦しくて しくて
Conditional 苦しければ しければ

Adjective edit

(くる)しい (kurushii-i (adverbial (くる)しく (kurushiku))

  1. physically painful, agonizing
  2. difficult, strenuous, mentally trying
  3. mentally agonizing
    aenai nante kurushii yo
    Being unable to be by your side is painful.
  4. tight (budget etc.), straitened
  5. forced

Inflection edit

References edit

  • 2002, Ineko Kondō; Fumi Takano; Mary E Althaus; et. al., Shogakukan Progressive Japanese-English Dictionary, Third Edition, Tokyo: Shōgakukan, →ISBN.
  1. 1.0 1.1 ”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000
  2. ^ Martin, Samuel E. (1987) The Japanese Language Through Time, New Haven, London: Yale University Press, →ISBN, page 833