See also: and
U+8A00, 言
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8A00
觿
[U+89FF]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8A01]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Alternative formsEdit

Note that in Japanese and Korean (printed forms), the component on top is written (as found in the Kangxi dictionary). In traditional/simplified Chinese and Vietnamese, the top component is written . In written Japanese, the top component may be written either , or (small vertical stroke).

Han characterEdit

(radical 149, +0, 7 strokes, cangjie input 卜一一口 (YMMR), four-corner 00601, composition𠄠(GHTV) or ⿱(JK))

  1. Kangxi radical #149, .

Derived charactersEdit

See alsoEdit

  • (yán) (when used as a left Chinese radical).

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1146, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 35205
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1612, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3936, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+8A00

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Ideogram (指事): Representation of words emerging from a mouth () or a man () speaking with his mouth ().

Shuowen: Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ŋan): phonetic  + semantic  (mouth).

EtymologyEdit

According to Schuessler (2007: 74) this word is derived from (OC *ŋaʔ, “to speak”) + -n nominal suffix.

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /iɛn³⁵/
Harbin /ian²⁴/
Tianjin /ian⁴⁵/
Jinan /iã⁴²/
Qingdao /iã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ian⁴²/
Xi'an /iã²⁴/
Xining /iã²⁴/
Yinchuan /ian⁵³/
Lanzhou /iɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /ian⁵¹/
Wuhan /iɛn²¹³/
Chengdu /ian³¹/
Guiyang /ian²¹/
Kunming /iɛ̃³¹/
Nanjing /ien²⁴/
Hefei /iĩ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /ie¹¹/
Pingyao /ȵie̞¹³/
Hohhot /ie³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɦi²³/
Suzhou /ɦiɪ¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦiẽ̞²¹³/
Wenzhou /ȵi³¹/
Hui Shexian /ne⁴⁴/
Tunxi /ȵiɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /iẽ¹³/
Xiangtan /ȵiẽ¹²/
Gan Nanchang /ȵiɛn⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /ŋian¹¹/
Taoyuan /ŋien¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jin²¹/
Nanning /jin²¹/
Hong Kong /jin²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /gian³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋyoŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋyiŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ŋaŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ŋin³¹/
/ŋin²¹³/
/kɔŋ²¹³/ 訓講

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (31)
Final () (65)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋɨɐn/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋiɐn/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋiɐn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋɨan/
Li
Rong
/ŋiɐn/
Wang
Li
/ŋĭɐn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋɨ̯ɐn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yán
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/4 2/4 3/4 4/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yán yán yán yán
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngjon › ‹ ngjon › ‹ ngjon › ‹ ngjon ›
Old
Chinese
/*ŋa[n]/ /*ŋa[n]/ /*ŋa[n]/ /*ŋa[r]/
English (a particle) I, we speak; speech tall

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 14271
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋan/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to say; to speak; to talk
    /   ―  yányu  ―  to speak; to tell
    三思 / 三思 [Classical Chinese]  ―  sānsī ér hòu yán [Pinyin]  ―  Think before you speak.
  2. to discuss; to comment
  3. to state; to describe; to explain
  4. to write down; to record
  5. to ask; to inquire
  6. to inform; to tell; to let know
  7. spoken language; speech
    /   ―  yán  ―  language
    /   ―  nuòyán  ―  promise
    /   ―  yán  ―  to make a speech
    /   ―  yáoyán  ―  fabricated rumor
    洋洋萬 / 洋洋万  ―  yángyángwànyán  ―  to be very lengthy (of an article, essay)
    /   ―  Wǒ néng liú ge yán ma?  ―  Can I leave a message?
  8. opinion; view; perspective
  9. words; language appropriate to the occasion
  10. proposal; idea; plan
  11. government decree; order
  12. character; word
  13. sentence; writing; works
  14. A meaningless sentence-initial mood particle.
  15. A surname​.

SynonymsEdit

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. to say
  2. speech

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
げん
Grade: 2
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (ngjon, speech).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(げん) (gen

  1. word
  2. (linguistics) parole
SynonymsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
こと
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Cognate with (koto, thing).[3]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(こと) (koto

  1. word

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  3. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Middle Chinese (MC ŋɨɐn). Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: en) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

HanjaEdit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 말씀 (malsseum eon))

  1. Hanja form? of (word).
  2. Hanja form? of (speech).
CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

HanjaEdit

(eumhun 심사화평할 (simsahwapyeonghal eun))

  1. (archaic) Hanja form? of (peaceful demeanor).

ReferencesEdit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

OkinawanEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. to say
  2. speech

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana くとぅ, rōmaji kutu)

  1. word

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(ngôn, ngỏn, ngộn, ngổn, ngồn, ngủn)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.