See also: and
U+8A00, 言
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8A00
觿
[U+89FF]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8A01]
U+2F94, ⾔
KANGXI RADICAL SPEECH

[U+2F93]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F95]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Alternative forms edit

Note that in Japanese and Korean (printed forms), the component on top is written (as found in the Kangxi dictionary). In traditional/simplified Chinese and Vietnamese, the top component is written . In written Japanese, the top component may be written either , or (small vertical stroke).

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 149, +0, 7 strokes, cangjie input 卜一一口 (YMMR), four-corner 00601, composition 𠄠(GHTV) or (JK))

  1. Kangxi radical #149, .
  2. Shuowen Jiezi radical №56

Derived characters edit

See also edit

  • (yán) (when used as a left Chinese radical).

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1146, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 35205
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1612, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3936, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+8A00

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Ideogram (指事) : was created by adding a mark to to indicate movement of the tongue.[1] This indicates speech where is a mouth () with a tongue sticking out.

Shuowen erroneously analyzes the glyph as a phono-semantic compound (形聲形声) : phonetic () + semantic (mouth).

Etymology edit

According to Schuessler (2007: 74) this word is derived from (OC *ŋaʔ, “to speak”) + -n nominal suffix.

Pronunciation edit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /iɛn³⁵/
Harbin /ian²⁴/
Tianjin /ian⁴⁵/
Jinan /iã⁴²/
Qingdao /iã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ian⁴²/
Xi'an /iã²⁴/
Xining /iã²⁴/
Yinchuan /ian⁵³/
Lanzhou /iɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /ian⁵¹/
Wuhan /iɛn²¹³/
Chengdu /ian³¹/
Guiyang /ian²¹/
Kunming /iɛ̃³¹/
Nanjing /ien²⁴/
Hefei /iĩ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /ie¹¹/
Pingyao /ȵie̞¹³/
Hohhot /ie³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɦi²³/
Suzhou /ɦiɪ¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦiẽ̞²¹³/
Wenzhou /ȵi³¹/
Hui Shexian /ne⁴⁴/
Tunxi /ȵiɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /iẽ¹³/
Xiangtan /ȵiẽ¹²/
Gan Nanchang /ȵiɛn⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /ŋian¹¹/
Taoyuan /ŋien¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jin²¹/
Nanning /jin²¹/
Hong Kong /jin²¹/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /gian³⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /ŋyoŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /ŋyiŋ³³/
Shantou (Teochew) /ŋaŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /ŋin³¹/
/ŋin²¹³/
/kɔŋ²¹³/ 訓講

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (31)
Final () (65)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter ngjon
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋɨɐn/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋiɐn/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋiɐn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋɨan/
Li
Rong
/ŋiɐn/
Wang
Li
/ŋĭɐn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋɨ̯ɐn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yán
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jin4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/4 2/4 3/4 4/4
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yán yán yán yán
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngjon › ‹ ngjon › ‹ ngjon › ‹ ngjon ›
Old
Chinese
/*ŋa[n]/ /*ŋa[n]/ /*ŋa[n]/ /*ŋa[r]/
English (a particle) I, we speak; speech tall

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 14271
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋan/

Definitions edit

  1. to say; to speak; to talk
      ―  yányu  ―  to speak; to tell
    三思三思 [Classical Chinese]  ―  sānsī ér hòu yán [Pinyin]  ―  Think before you speak.
  2. to discuss; to comment
  3. to state; to describe; to explain
  4. to write down; to record
  5. to ask; to inquire
  6. to inform; to tell; to let know
  7. spoken language; speech
      ―  yán  ―  language
      ―  nuòyán  ―  promise
      ―  yán  ―  to make a speech
      ―  yáoyán  ―  fabricated rumor
    洋洋萬洋洋万  ―  yángyángwànyán  ―  to be very lengthy (of an article, essay)
      ―  Wǒ néng liú ge yán ma?  ―  Can I leave a message?
  8. opinion; view; perspective
  9. words; language appropriate to the occasion
  10. proposal; idea; plan
  11. government decree; order
  12. character; word
  13. sentence; writing; works
  14. A meaningless sentence-initial mood particle.
  15. a surname

Synonyms edit

Compounds edit

References edit

  1. ^ <言> at the Glyph Database from the Institute of History and Language of the Academia Sinica and the Institute of Information Science

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. to say
  2. speech

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
げん
Grade: 2
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC ngjon, “speech”).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(げん) (gen

  1. word
  2. (linguistics) parole
Synonyms edit
Antonyms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
こと
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Cognate with (koto, thing).[4]

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(こと) (koto

  1. word

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998) NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN
  3. ^ Yamada, Tadao et al., editors (2011) 新明解国語辞典 [Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten] (in Japanese), Seventh edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. ^ Matsumura, Akira (1995) 大辞泉 [Daijisen] (in Japanese), First edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

Korean edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle Chinese (MC ngjon).

Historical readings

Pronunciation edit

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 말씀 (malsseum eon))

  1. Hanja form? of (word).
  2. Hanja form? of (speech).

Compounds edit

Etymology 2 edit

Related to Middle Chinese (MC ngin).

Hanja edit

(eumhun 심사화평할 (simsahwapyeonghal eun))

  1. (literary Chinese) Hanja form? of (peaceful demeanor).

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Okinawan edit

Kanji edit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. to say
  2. speech

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Noun edit

(くとぅ) (kutu

  1. word

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Nôm readings: ngôn, ngỏn, ngộn, ngổn, ngồn, ngủn

  1. speech
  2. word
  3. to speak
  4. to tell