See also:
U+8AD6, 論
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8AD6

[U+8AD5]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8AD7]
U+F941, 論
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F941

[U+F940]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F942]

Translingual edit

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 149, +8, 15 strokes, cangjie input 卜口人一月 (YROMB), four-corner 08627, composition )

Derived characters edit

Descendants edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1168, character 13
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 35658
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1633, character 19
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3988, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+8AD6

Chinese edit

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin edit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *ruːn, *ruːns, *run) : semantic (say) + phonetic (OC *run).

Etymology edit

Compare Mizo râwn (to ask advice, to consult, to ask) [high-tone], Mizo râwn (to suggest, to advise, to recommend) [low-tone].

Pronunciation 1 edit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /luən⁵¹/
Harbin /luən⁵³/
Tianjin /luən⁵³/
Jinan /luẽ⁴²/
Qingdao /luə̃⁴²/
Zhengzhou /luən²¹³/
Xi'an /lyẽ²⁴/
Xining /lyə̃²¹³/
Yinchuan /luŋ⁵³/ ~語
/luŋ¹³/ 言~
Lanzhou /lũn¹³/
Ürümqi /lun²¹³/
Wuhan /nən³⁵/
Chengdu /nən¹³/
/nuən¹³/
Guiyang /len²¹³/
Kunming /luə̃²¹²/
Nanjing /lun⁴⁴/
Hefei /lən⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /luəŋ¹¹/
/lyəŋ¹¹/
/luəŋ⁴⁵/
/lyəŋ⁴⁵/
Pingyao /luŋ³⁵/
Hohhot /lũŋ⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /ləŋ²³/
Suzhou /lən³¹/
Hangzhou /len²¹³/
Wenzhou /lø³¹/
Hui Shexian /lʌ̃²²/
Tunxi /luːə¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /lən¹³/
Xiangtan /nən¹²/
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian /lun⁵³/
Taoyuan
Cantonese Guangzhou /løn²²/
Nanning /lɐn²²/
Hong Kong /løn²²/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /lun³⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /lɔuŋ²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /lɔŋ⁴⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /luŋ³⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /lun³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 3/3 2/3
Initial () (37) (37)
Final () (55) (55)
Tone (調) Departing (H) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed Closed
Division () I I
Fanqie
Baxter lwonH lwon
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/luənH/ /luən/
Pan
Wuyun
/luonH/ /luon/
Shao
Rongfen
/luənH/ /luən/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lwənH/ /lwən/
Li
Rong
/luənH/ /luən/
Wang
Li
/luənH/ /luən/
Bernard
Karlgren
/luənH/ /luən/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
lùn lún
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
leon6 leon4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 3/3 2/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
lùn lún
Middle
Chinese
‹ lwonH › ‹ lwon ›
Old
Chinese
/*[r]ˁu[n]-s/ /*[r]ˁu[n]/
English discussion, discourse discuss, examine

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/3 1/3
No. 8656 8649
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2 2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ruːns/ /*ruːn/

Definitions edit

  1. to discuss; to reason; to debate; to argue
  2. to assess; to evaluate; to judge; to weigh
  3. to state; to talk about; to recount
  4. to treat; to regard; to handle
  5. to take into consideration; to consider
  6. according to; on the basis of
  7. discussion; dialogue; discourse
  8. essay; discourse
  9. theory; thesis; system

Compounds edit

Pronunciation 2 edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/3
Initial () (37)
Final () (47)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter lwin
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/liuɪn/
Pan
Wuyun
/lʷin/
Shao
Rongfen
/ljuen/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lwin/
Li
Rong
/liuĕn/
Wang
Li
/lĭuĕn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/li̯uĕn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
lún
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
leon4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
lún
Middle
Chinese
‹ lwin ›
Old
Chinese
/*[r]u[n]/
English (in name of Lúnyǔ 論語)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 3/3
No. 8667
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*run/

Definitions edit

  1. to say directly or to the point
  2. Short for 論語论语 (Lúnyǔ, “Lunyu; Analects”).
  3. a surname

Compounds edit

Japanese edit

See also 論じる, and 論ずる

Kanji edit

(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. argument, discussion

Readings edit

From Middle Chinese (MC lwonH); compare Mandarin (lùn):

From Middle Chinese (MC lwin); compare Mandarin (lún):

From native Japanese roots:

Compounds edit

Etymology edit

Kanji in this term
ろん
Grade: 6
on’yomi
  on Japanese Wikipedia

From Middle Chinese (MC lwon).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(ろん) (ron

  1. argument, discussion, disputation
    (ろん)より(しょう)()
    ron yori shōko
    the proof of the pudding is in the eating
    (literally, “evidence over argument”)
  2. theory
  3. question of; advocacy of
    鉄道国有(てつどうこくゆう)(ろん)
    tetsudō kokuyū ron
    the railway nationalization question
    征韓(せいかん)(ろん)
    Seikanron
    Seikanron ― advocacy of a conquest of Korea
    非戦(ひせん)(ろん)(とな)える
    hisenron o tonaeru
    to advocate against war
  4. opinion, view
  5. essay, treatise
    人間知性(にんげんちせい)(ろん)
    “Ningen chisei ron
    "An Essay Concerning Human Understanding"
    人間本性(にんげんほんせい)(ろん)
    “Ningen honsei ron
    "A Treatise of Human Nature"

Suffix edit

(ろん) (-ron

  1. theory; -ology
    集合(しゅうごう)(ろん)shūgōronset theory
    宇宙(うちゅう)(ろん)uchūroncosmology
    陰謀(いんぼう)(ろん)inbōronconspiracy theory
  2. doctrine; -ism
    無神(むしん)(ろん)mushinronatheism
    唯物(ゆいぶつ)(ろん)yuibutsuronmaterialism

References edit

  1. ^ Yamada, Tadao et al., editors (2011), 新明解国語辞典 (in Japanese), Seventh edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean edit

Hanja edit

(eumhun 논할 (nonhal ron), South Korea 논할 (nonhal non))

  1. Hanja form? of / (argument, discussion).

Compounds edit

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Việt readings: luận[1][2][3]
: Nôm readings: lọn[1][2][3][4][5], lộn[1][2][3][4][5], lụn[1][2][3][4][5], luồn[1][2][3][5], trọn[1][2][3][5], luận[1][2][5], trộn[1][3][5], chọn[1][3], tròn[2][5], lòn[4][5], dọn[1], rộn[1], soạn[1], giọn[3], lốn[3], gọn[4], lấn[4], lẩn[4]

  1. chữ Hán form of luận (essay).

Compounds edit

References edit