U+9020, 造
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9020

[U+901F]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9021]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 162, +7, 10 strokes, cangjie input 卜竹土口 (YHGR), four-corner 34306, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1258, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 38898
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1746, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3841, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+9020

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph originEdit

Shuowen: Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *skʰuːɡs, *sɡuːʔ): semantic (to walk) + phonetic (OC *kuːɡs, *kuːɡ).

Etymology 1Edit

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • Quanzhou:
    • chǒ - vernacular;
    • chǒ͘ - literary.
  • (Teochew)
  • Wu
  • Xiang
  • Note:
    • zau5 - used in 造孽 (“pitiful; pitiable”).

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /t͡sɑu⁵¹/
    Harbin /t͡sau⁵³/
    Tianjin /t͡sɑu⁵³/
    Jinan /t͡sɔ²¹/
    Qingdao /t͡sɔ⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /t͡sau³¹²/
    Xi'an /t͡sʰau⁴⁴/
    Xining /t͡sɔ²¹³/
    Yinchuan /t͡sɔ¹³/
    Lanzhou /t͡sɔ¹³/
    Ürümqi /t͡sɔ²¹³/
    Wuhan /t͡sʰau³⁵/
    Chengdu /t͡sʰau¹³/
    /t͡sau¹³/
    Guiyang /t͡sʰao²¹³/
    Kunming /t͡sʰɔ²¹²/
    Nanjing /t͡sɔo⁴⁴/
    Hefei /t͡sʰɔ⁵³/
    /t͡sɔ⁵³/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡sʰau⁴⁵/
    Pingyao /t͡sʰɔ³⁵/
    Hohhot /t͡sɔ⁵⁵/
    Wu Shanghai /zɔ²³/
    Suzhou /zæ³¹/
    Hangzhou /d͡zɔ¹³/
    Wenzhou /zɜ³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /t͡sʰɔ²²/
    Tunxi /t͡sʰə²⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /t͡sʰau⁵⁵/ 建~
    /t͡sau¹¹/ ~孽
    Xiangtan /t͡sʰaɯ⁵⁵/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡sʰɑu²¹/
    Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰau⁵³/
    Taoyuan /t͡sʰo⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sou²²/
    Nanning /t͡su²²/
    Hong Kong /t͡sou²²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sʰo²¹/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sʰɔ²¹²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sau⁴²/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sau³⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /tau³³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (15)
    Final () (89)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡zɑuX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡zɑuX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡zɑuX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡zawX/
    Li
    Rong
    /d͡zɑuX/
    Wang
    Li
    /d͡zɑuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /d͡zʱɑuX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zào
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    zou6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zào
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dzawX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[dzˁ]uʔ/
    English make

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 3803
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sɡuːʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to make; to build
    2. to manufacture; to make; to produce
    3. to create; to invent; to establish
    4. to make up; to fabricate
    5. to institute
    6. era; period
    7. (dialectal) Classifier for harvests.
      可以 [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
      jat1 nin4 ho2 ji5 sau1 saam1 zou6 mai5 [Jyutping]
      to be able to gather three harvests of rice a year
    8. (law) party concerned in the suit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    PronunciationEdit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (14)
    Final () (89)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡sʰɑuH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡sʰɑuH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡sʰɑuH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /t͡sʰawH/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡sʰɑuH/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡sʰɑuH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡sʰɑuH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    cào
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    cou3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zào
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tshawH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*(mə-)tsʰˁuʔ-s/
    English go to

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 3799
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*skʰuːɡs/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to go to; to arrive at; to reach
    2. to visit; to pay a visit; to call to pay respect
    3. to achieve; to attain; to accomplish
    4. achievement; accomplishment; attainment

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    PronunciationEdit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Used in 新造 (xīnzào, “Xinzao, a town in Guangzhou”).

    Etymology 4Edit

    PronunciationEdit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (Mandarin, slang) Contraction of 知道 (zhīdào).
      /   ―  zào ma?  ―  Didja know?

    Etymology 5Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see 𢲵 (“(Sichuan) to stir; to flip over; to rummage”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of 𢲵.)

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. create, make, physique, structure

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit


    KoreanEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC d͡zɑuX).

    Historical readings

    PronunciationEdit

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [t͡ɕo̞(ː)]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 지을 (jieul jo))

    1. Hanja form? of (to create; to make).
    2. Hanja form? of (physique; structure).

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡sʰɑuH).

    Historical readings

    PronunciationEdit

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [t͡ɕo̞(ː)]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 이룰 (irul jo))

    1. (literary) Hanja form? of (to achieve).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: tạo, xáo, xạo, tháo

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.