See also: and

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

EtymologyEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *qʰramʔ): semantic  + phonetic  ‎(OC *skʰlam).

Han characterEdit

(radical 170 +13, 16 strokes, cangjie input 弓中人一人 (NLOMO), four-corner 78286, composition)

  1. narrow pass
  2. strategic point
  3. dangerous

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1361, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 41874
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1865, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 4160, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+96AA

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕian²¹⁴/
Harbin /ɕian²¹³/
Tianjin /ɕian¹³/
Jinan /ɕiã⁵⁵/
Qingdao /ɕiã⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /ɕian⁵³/
Xi'an /ɕiã⁵³/
Xining /ɕiã⁵³/
Yinchuan /ɕian⁵³/
Lanzhou /ɕiɛ̃n⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /ɕian⁵¹/
Wuhan /ɕiɛn⁴²/
Chengdu /ɕian⁵³/
Guiyang /ɕian⁴²/
Kunming /ɕiɛ̃⁵³/
Nanjing /ɕien²¹²/
Hefei /ɕiĩ²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕie¹¹/
Pingyao /ɕie̞⁵³/
Hohhot /ɕie⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /ɕi³⁵/
Suzhou /ɕiɪ⁵¹/
Hangzhou /ɕiẽ̞⁵³/
Wenzhou /ɕi³⁵/
Hui Shexian /ɕie³⁵/
Tunxi /ɕiɛ³¹/
Xiang Changsha /ɕiẽ⁴¹/
Xiangtan /ɕiẽ²¹/
Gan Nanchang /ɕiɛn²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /hiam³¹/
Taoyuan /hiɑm³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /him³⁵/
Nanning /him³⁵/
Hong Kong /him³⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hiam⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /hieŋ³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xiŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /hiam⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /hiam²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (32)
Final () (154)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/hˠiᴇmX/
Pan
Wuyun
/hᵚiɛmX/
Shao
Rongfen
/xiæmX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/hjiamX/
Li
Rong
/xjɛmX/
Wang
Li
/xĭɛmX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xi̯ɛmX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xǎn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xiǎn xiǎn
Middle
Chinese
‹ xjæmX › ‹ xjemX ›
Old
Chinese
/*qʰr[a]mʔ/ /*qʰr[a]mʔ/
English precipitous, dangerous precipitous, dangerous

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 10221
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qʰramʔ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. danger
  2. dangerous
  3. steep, rugged
  4. almost, see 險些
  5. insurance

Derived termsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

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ReadingsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(heom) (hangeul , revised heom, McCune-Reischauer hŏm, Yale hem)

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VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(hiểm, hẻm, hiếm, hĩm)

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