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U+96AA, 險
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-96AA

[U+96A9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+96AB]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han characterEdit

(radical 170 +13, 16 strokes, cangjie input 弓中人一人 (NLOMO), four-corner 78286, composition)

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1361, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 41874
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1865, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 4160, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+96AA

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*raːm, *kʰreːm, *kʰlam
*qʰlaːm
*ɡ·reːmʔ, *skʰlam, *kramʔ
*ɡr·reːmʔ, *skʰraːmʔ
*kreːmʔ, *skʰlam
*ɡ·ram, *ɡ·ramʔ, *qʰram
*ɡ·ram
*ɡ·ram, *ɡ·ramʔ, *ɡ·rams, *qʰramʔ
*ɡ·ram, *ɡ·ramʔ, *qʰlam
*ɡ·ram
*ɡ·ramʔ, *ɡ·rams
*ɡ·ramʔ, *ɡ·rams
*ɡ·ramʔ, *kramʔ
*ɡ·ramʔ
*ɡ·rams
*skʰlam
*skʰlam
*skʰlam, *skʰlamʔ, *sqʰlam, *qʰramʔ
*skʰlam, *qʰramʔ
*kramʔ
*kramʔ
*ɡramʔ
*ŋramʔ, *rlɯmʔ, *kʰrɯmʔ
*ŋramʔ
*ŋramʔ, *hŋramʔ
*ŋramʔ, *ŋrams
*ŋrams
*qʰramʔ
*kams
*kams
𩏩 *qʰam

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *qʰramʔ): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *skʰlam).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • hiám - literary;
  • hiáⁿ - vernacular.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕian²¹⁴/
Harbin /ɕian²¹³/
Tianjin /ɕian¹³/
Jinan /ɕiã⁵⁵/
Qingdao /ɕiã⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /ɕian⁵³/
Xi'an /ɕiã⁵³/
Xining /ɕiã⁵³/
Yinchuan /ɕian⁵³/
Lanzhou /ɕiɛ̃n⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /ɕian⁵¹/
Wuhan /ɕiɛn⁴²/
Chengdu /ɕian⁵³/
Guiyang /ɕian⁴²/
Kunming /ɕiɛ̃⁵³/
Nanjing /ɕien²¹²/
Hefei /ɕiĩ²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕie¹¹/
Pingyao /ɕie̞⁵³/
Hohhot /ɕie⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /ɕi³⁵/
Suzhou /ɕiɪ⁵¹/
Hangzhou /ɕiẽ̞⁵³/
Wenzhou /ɕi³⁵/
Hui Shexian /ɕie³⁵/
Tunxi /ɕiɛ³¹/
Xiang Changsha /ɕiẽ⁴¹/
Xiangtan /ɕiẽ²¹/
Gan Nanchang /ɕiɛn²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /hiam³¹/
Taoyuan /hiɑm³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /him³⁵/
Nanning /him³⁵/
Hong Kong /him³⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hiam⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /hieŋ³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xiŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /hiam⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /hiam²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (32)
Final () (154)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/hˠiᴇmX/
Pan
Wuyun
/hᵚiɛmX/
Shao
Rongfen
/xiæmX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/hjiamX/
Li
Rong
/xjɛmX/
Wang
Li
/xĭɛmX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xi̯ɛmX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xiǎn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xiǎn xiǎn
Middle
Chinese
‹ xjæmX › ‹ xjemX ›
Old
Chinese
/*qʰr[a]mʔ/ /*qʰr[a]mʔ/
English precipitous, dangerous precipitous, dangerous

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 10221
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qʰramʔ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. perilous; treacherous
  2. dangerous; hazardous
  3. danger; hazard; peril; risk
  4. narrow pass; treacherous place; strategic point
  5. steep; rugged
  6. almost; narrowly; nearly
    /   ―  xiǎnxiē  ―  nearly
  7. Short for 保險保险 (bǎoxiǎn, “insurance”).

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

KanjiEdit

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

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ReadingsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(heom) (hangeul , revised heom, McCune-Reischauer hŏm, Yale hem)

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VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(hiểm, hẻm, hiếm, hĩm)

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