See also: and
U+96AA, 險
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-96AA

[U+96A9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+96AB]

Translingual

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Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 170, +13, 16 strokes, cangjie input 弓中人一人 (NLOMO), four-corner 78286, composition )

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1361, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 41874
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1865, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 4160, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+96AA

Chinese

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trad.
simp.
alternative forms

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *qʰramʔ) : semantic + phonetic (OC *skʰlam).

Etymology

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May be cognate with (OC *ŋraːm, “tall; cliff”). See for more.

Pronunciation

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Note:
  • hiám/hém - literary;
  • hiáⁿ - vernacular.
Note: hiang2 - Chenghai.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕian²¹⁴/
Harbin /ɕian²¹³/
Tianjin /ɕian¹³/
Jinan /ɕiã⁵⁵/
Qingdao /ɕiã⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /ɕian⁵³/
Xi'an /ɕiã⁵³/
Xining /ɕiã⁵³/
Yinchuan /ɕian⁵³/
Lanzhou /ɕiɛ̃n⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /ɕian⁵¹/
Wuhan /ɕiɛn⁴²/
Chengdu /ɕian⁵³/
Guiyang /ɕian⁴²/
Kunming /ɕiɛ̃⁵³/
Nanjing /ɕien²¹²/
Hefei /ɕiĩ²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕie¹¹/
Pingyao /ɕie̞⁵³/
Hohhot /ɕie⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /ɕi³⁵/
Suzhou /ɕiɪ⁵¹/
Hangzhou /ɕiẽ̞⁵³/
Wenzhou /ɕi³⁵/
Hui Shexian /ɕie³⁵/
Tunxi /ɕiɛ³¹/
Xiang Changsha /ɕiẽ⁴¹/
Xiangtan /ɕiẽ²¹/
Gan Nanchang /ɕiɛn²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /hiam³¹/
Taoyuan /hiɑm³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /him³⁵/
Nanning /him³⁵/
Hong Kong /him³⁵/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /hiam⁵³/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /hieŋ³²/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /xiŋ²¹/
Shantou (Teochew) /hiam⁵³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /hiam²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (32)
Final () (154)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter xjemX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/hˠiᴇmX/
Pan
Wuyun
/hᵚiɛmX/
Shao
Rongfen
/xiæmX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/hjiamX/
Li
Rong
/xjɛmX/
Wang
Li
/xĭɛmX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xi̯ɛmX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xiǎn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
him2
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xiǎn xiǎn
Middle
Chinese
‹ xjæmX › ‹ xjemX ›
Old
Chinese
/*qʰr[a]mʔ/ /*qʰr[a]mʔ/
English precipitous, dangerous precipitous, dangerous

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 10221
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qʰramʔ/

Definitions

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  1. (of terrain) difficult and treacherous
      ―  xiǎntān  ―  dangerous shoal
  2. (now in compounds) narrow pass; treacherous place; strategic point
      ―  tiānxiǎn  ―  natural terrain that is precipitous and in a strategic position
      ―  xiǎn kě shǒu  ―  to have no tenable defence position
  3. (now dialectal or in compounds) danger; hazard; peril; risk
      ―  màoxiǎn  ―  to take a risk
      ―  tuōxiǎn  ―  to escape danger
    [Guangzhou Cantonese, trad.]
    [Guangzhou Cantonese, simp.]
    From: 2002, 李榮 (Li Rong), chief editor, 現代漢語方言大詞典 [Great Dictionary of Modern Chinese Dialects], Nanjing: Jiangsu Education Publishing House, →ISBN, page 5595
    bei6 gwo3 nei1 coeng4 him2 [Jyutping]
    (please add an English translation of this usage example)
  4. dangerous; hazardous
      ―  jīngxiǎn  ―  breathtaking
    得滯 [Guangzhou Cantonese, trad.]
    得滞 [Guangzhou Cantonese, simp.]
    From: 2002, 李榮 (Li Rong), chief editor, 現代漢語方言大詞典 [Great Dictionary of Modern Chinese Dialects], Nanjing: Jiangsu Education Publishing House, →ISBN, page 5595
    him2 dak1 zai6 [Jyutping]
    too dangerous
  5. (now dialectal or in compounds) sinister; vicious
      ―  yīnxiǎn  ―  treacherous; sinister
  6. (of bad things) almost; nearly
      ―  xiǎnxiē  ―  nearly
    毒手毒手  ―  xiǎn zāo dúshǒu  ―  to be nearly murdered
  7. (in compounds) Short for 保險保险 (bǎoxiǎn, “insurance”).
    寿  ―  shòuxiǎn  ―  life insurance

Synonyms

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  • (almost):

Compounds

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Descendants

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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Vietnamese: hiểm ()

References

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Japanese

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Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji

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(Jinmeiyō kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings

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Korean

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Hanja

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(heom) (hangeul , revised heom, McCune–Reischauer hŏm, Yale hem)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Việt readings: hiểm[1][2][3][4][5][6]
: Nôm readings: hiểm[1], hẻm[7], hiếm[2][7], hĩm[3]

  1. chữ Hán form of hiểm (dangerous, impassable).
  2. Nôm form of hẻm (narrow space, dead-end).
  3. Nôm form of hiếm (rare, scarce).
  4. Nôm form of hĩm (little girl (Central Vietnamese countryside)).

References

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