Japanese

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Kanji in this term
あお
Grade: 1
kun'yomi
Alternative spelling
靑い (kyūjitai)

Etymology

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Modern form of Old Japanese adjective あおし (awosi); from Old Japanese awo-,[1] from Proto-Japonic *awo.[2]

⟨awosi⟩ (classical 終止形 (shūshikei) or terminal form) → ⟨awoki1 (classical 連体形 (rentaikei) or attributive form) → /aoi/ (modern shūshikei and rentaikei)

An intervocalic sound-change, before /-i, -u, -e, -o/, caused medial voiceless plosive /-k-/ to undergo voicing, then spirantization, and gliding, before being dropped.[3]

⟨awoki1 → */awokʲi/ → */awoɡʲi/ → */awoɣi/ → */awoji/ → */awoi//aoi/

Pronunciation

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  • Tokyo pitch accent of inflected forms of "青い"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Continuative (連用形) 青く おく
[áꜜòkù]
[àóꜜkù]
Terminal (終止形) 青い [àóꜜì]
Attributive (連体形) 青い [àóꜜì]
Key constructions
Informal negative 青くない おくない
くない
[áꜜòkùnàì]
[àóꜜkùnàì]
Informal past 青かった おかった
かった
[áꜜòkàttà]
[àóꜜkàttà]
Informal negative past 青くなかった おくなかった
くなかった
[áꜜòkùnàkàttà]
[àóꜜkùnàkàttà]
Formal 青いです いです [àóꜜìdèsù]
Conjunctive 青くて おくて
くて
[áꜜòkùtè]
[àóꜜkùtè]
Conditional 青ければ おければ
ければ
[áꜜòkèrèbà]
[àóꜜkèrèbà]

Adjective

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(あお) (aoiあをい (awoi)?-i (adverbial (あお) (aoku))

  1. blue
  2. (of vegetation or traffic lights) green
  3. pale
  4. unripe; green (inexperienced)
    おまえまだ(あお)
    Omae wa mada aoi.
    You're still green.

Inflection

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Idioms

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References

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  1. ^ Frellesvig, Bjarke, Stephen Wright Horn, et al. (eds.) (2023) “Old Japanese awo-”, in Oxford-NINJAL Corpus of Old Japanese[1]
  2. ^ Thomas Pellard. Ryukyuan perspectives on the proto-Japonic vowel system. Frellesvig, Bjarke; Sells, Peter. Japanese/Korean Linguistics 20, CSLI Publications, pp.81–96, 2013.
  3. ^ Hamano, S. Journal of East Asian Linguistics (2000) 9: 207. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008367619295
  4. ^ Nakai, Yukihiko, editor (2002), 京阪系アクセント辞典 [A Dictionary of Tone on Words of the Keihan-type Dialects] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Bensei, →ISBN