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U+982D, 頭
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-982D

[U+982C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+982E]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Han characterEdit

(radical 181, +7, 16 strokes, cangjie input 一廿一月金 (MTMBC), four-corner 11186, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

Related charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1404, character 20
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 43490
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1921, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4372, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+982D

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
 
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
 
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*toː
*toː, *roː
*toː, *doːs
*toːs
*tʰoː
*doː
*doːs
*doːs, *dos
*doːs
*doːs
*doːs
*doːs
*doːs
*doːs
*doːs
*djoʔ
*djoʔ
*toːnʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *doː): phonetic  (OC *doːs) + semantic  (head).

EtymologyEdit

Replaced earlier (MC ɕɨuX, “head”) due to homophony with (MC ɕɨuX, “hand”) (Sagart, 1999).

Several etymologies have been proposed:

PronunciationEdit


Note: tau4-2 - “leader”.
Note: heu3* - “leader”.
Note:
  • thâu - vernacular;
  • thiô/thô͘ - literary;
  • thô - only used in 饅頭.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /tʰou³⁵/
    Harbin /tʰou²⁴/
    Tianjin /tʰou⁴⁵/
    Jinan /tʰou⁴²/
    Qingdao /tʰou⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /tʰou⁴²/
    Xi'an /tʰou²⁴/
    Xining /tʰɯ²⁴/
    Yinchuan /tʰəu⁵³/
    Lanzhou /tʰou⁵³/
    Ürümqi /tʰɤu⁵¹/
    Wuhan /tʰəu²¹³/
    Chengdu /tʰəu³¹/
    Guiyang /tʰəu²¹/
    Kunming /tʰəu³¹/
    Nanjing /tʰəɯ²⁴/
    Hefei /tʰɯ⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /tʰəu¹¹/
    Pingyao /təu¹³/
    /tʰəu¹³/
    Hohhot /tʰəu³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /dɤ²³/
    Suzhou /dɤ¹³/
    Hangzhou /dei²¹³/
    Wenzhou /dɤu³¹/
    Hui Shexian /tʰiu⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /tʰiu⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /təu¹³/
    Xiangtan /dəɯ¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /tʰɛu²⁴/
    Hakka Meixian /tʰeu¹¹/
    Taoyuan /tʰeu¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /tʰɐu²¹/
    Nanning /tʰɐu²¹/
    Hong Kong /tʰɐu²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /tʰɔ³⁵/
    /tʰau³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /tʰau⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /tʰe³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /tʰau⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /hau³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (7)
    Final () (137)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /dəu/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /dəu/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /dəu/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /dəw/
    Li
    Rong
    /du/
    Wang
    Li
    /dəu/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /dʱə̯u/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    tóu
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    tóu
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ duw ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[m-t]ˁo/
    English head

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 2465
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*doː/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (anatomy) head (Classifier: m c)
      不再 / 不再  ―  tóu bùzài tòng le.  ―  My head doesn't hurt any more.
    2. hair; hairstyle
      /   ―  tóu  ―  to wash one's hair
    3. top; tip; end
    4. chief; boss; leader
    5. remnant; end
    6. Classifier for livestock.all nouns using this classifier
      /   ―  Wǒ yǒu liǎng tóu zhū.  ―  I have two pigs.
    7. first; leading
    8. Diminutive suffix.

    SynonymsEdit

    Dialectal synonyms of (“head”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 頭部頭顱頭腦
    Mandarin Beijing 腦袋腦袋瓜兒腦袋瓜子腦殼兒腦瓜殼兒
    Taiwan 腦袋
    Tianjin 腦袋腦瓜子腦袋瓜子腦袋瓜兒
    Harbin 腦殼兒腦殼子腦子腦瓜兒腦瓜子腦袋腦袋瓜兒腦袋瓜子
    Shenyang 腦袋
    Hailar 腦袋
    Ulan Hot 腦袋腦袋瓜兒
    Tongliao 腦袋
    Chifeng
    Bayanhot 腦袋
    Jinan 腦袋腦袋瓜子腦瓜子腦瓜兒
    Muping 腦袋瓜子 derogatory
    Luoyang 低腦
    Jiedian 等腦
    Xi'an 𦠿
    Xining
    Xuzhou 棗木 dated, humorous
    Yinchuan
    Lanzhou 頭蛋骨得勒 derogatory
    Ürümqi
    Wuhan 腦殼
    Chengdu 腦殼
    Guiyang 腦殼
    Guilin 腦殼
    Liuzhou 頭殼腦殼
    Kunming 腦殼
    Yangzhou
    Nanjing
    Hefei
    Cantonese Guangzhou 頭殼
    Hong Kong 頭殼
    Shunde
    Zhongshan
    Dongguan 腦殼
    Hong Kong (Weitou) 頭殼
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka)
    Taishan 頭殼
    Kaiping
    Shaoguan 頭殼
    Yunfu 頭殼
    Yangjiang 頭殼
    Xinyi 頭殼
    Lianjiang 頭殼
    Nanning
    Wuzhou
    Yulin
    Hepu 頭殼
    Kuala Lumpur
    Gan Nanchang 腦蓋
    Lichuan
    Pingxiang 腦殼
    Hakka Meixian 頭那
    Xingning 頭那
    Huidong 頭那
    Qujiang 頭那
    Xiaosanjiang 頭那
    Luchuan
    Changting 頭那
    Pingyu 頭那
    Wuping 頭那
    Liancheng 頭那
    Ninghua 腦殼
    Yudu 腦蓋腦殼
    Ruijin 腦蓋頭那殼
    Shicheng 腦蓋腦殼
    Shangyou 腦蓋
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 頭那
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 頭那
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 頭那
    Dongshi (Dabu) 頭那
    Zhuolan (Raoping) 頭那
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 頭那
    Hong Kong 頭那
    Sabah 頭那
    Senai 頭那
    Singkawang 頭那
    Huizhou Jixi 腦殼
    Jin Taiyuan 得腦乾骷髏 derogatory骷髏 derogatory
    Xinzhou 得腦
    Baochang
    Jining 腦袋
    Hohhot 腦袋
    Baotou 腦袋
    Dongsheng
    Linhe 腦袋
    Haibowan 腦袋
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou 頭腦頭首
    Fuqing
    Matsu 頭首
    Min Nan Xiamen 頭殼
    Quanzhou 頭殼
    Zhangzhou 頭殼
    Taipei 頭殼
    Kaohsiung 頭殼
    Tainan 頭殼
    Taichung 頭殼
    Hsinchu 頭殼
    Lukang 頭殼
    Sanxia 頭殼
    Yilan 頭殼
    Kinmen 頭殼
    Magong 頭殼
    Penang 頭殼
    Singapore 頭殼
    Philippines (Manila) 頭殼
    Pingnan
    Chaozhou 頭殼
    Shantou 頭殼
    Haifeng 頭殼頭殼顱
    Johor Bahru
    Haikou 頭顱頭殼
    Leizhou 頭顱殼升
    Puxian Min Putian
    Pinghua Nanning 頭殼
    Guilin
    Wu Shanghai 頭骷顱骷顱頭 often derogatory骷郎頭 often derogatory
    Suzhou 骷郎頭六斤四兩
    Hangzhou 腦頭瓜
    Wenzhou 六斤四 secret
    Chongming 頭爿
    Danyang 腦袋瓜頭骷郎
    Jinhua 葫粒頭 humorous
    Ningbo 骷顱頭骷郎頭骷顱頭甏 derogatory骷顱頭瓶 derogatory六斤四兩 humorous
    Xiang Changsha 腦殼
    Shuangfeng 腦殼
    Loudi 腦殼
    Quanzhou 腦殼

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    Kanji in this term
    あたま
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese of unknown derivation. Theories include:

    • Compound of (a tama, literally heaven, sky + ball). This is problematic phonetically, as appears historically as ama or ame, not as just a
    • Compound of 当て (ate ma, literally putting something in contact + space, gap), referring to the head as a moxibustion point. This is also problematic phonetically, as the shift from ate to ata necessitates a change in meaning of the underlying verb. This is also problematic semantically, as the (ma) term refers more specifically to a gap or space.
    • Compound of (ate ma, literally noble + space), referring to the most important part of the body. However, the use of (ma) in this way is again problematic. Moreover, (ate, noble) appears in The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter dating to the 900s CE, while (atama) with a sense of fontanelle appears in the Wamyō Ruijushō dated 938 CE, leaving insufficient time for either the semantic or phonetic drift required.[1][2]

    Historically, this term first appears with a sense of fontanelle, in reference to the soft place on the top of an infant's head where the bones of the skull have not yet fused. As such, a more likely derivation might be as a compound of 当た (ata, not quite touching, not quite in contact, possibly a fossilized 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) of classical verb 当つ (atsu), root of modern 当たる (ataru, to touch, to come into contact)) +‎ (ma, space, gap, opening).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana あたま, rōmaji atama)

    1. head (body part)
       (あたま) (いた)い。
      Atama ga itai.
      My head hurts.
    2. (anatomy, archaic, possibly obsolete) the fontanelle part of the skull
    IdiomsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    かしら
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.[1] Found as a standalone noun in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE, and as a counter in the Kojiki, dating to 712 CE.

    Alternative formsEdit

    • (head of a doll):

    PronunciationEdit

    CounterEdit

    (hiragana かしら, rōmaji -kashira)

    1. a head, as when counting people, or cattle or other livestock

    NounEdit

    (hiragana かしら, rōmaji kashira)

    1. the head as a whole
    2. boss, leader
    3. top part of a Chinese character
    4. the head of a doll
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    かぶり
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Cognate with and shift in meaning from かぶり (kaburi, covering; hat, crown), spelled in kanji as 被り or .

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana かぶり, rōmaji kaburi)

    1. head
    IdiomsEdit

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    かぶ
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    Cognate with  (かぶ) (kabu, stump; root), from a general sense of lump.[1]

    PronunciationEdit

    • (Irregular reading)

    NounEdit

    (hiragana かぶ, rōmaji kabu)

    1. (obsolete) head
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 5Edit

    Kanji in this term
    つぶり
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    Cognate with (tsubu, round thing, such as a grain), 禿ぶ (tsubu, to go bald, from the idea of one's head becoming round), 円ら (tsubura, round, adjective), 潰れる (tsubureru, to become rounded, as from wear and tear, or from crushing).[1]

    Some sources[2] derive this as a shift from 円ら (tsubura, round, adjective). However, the phonology and semantics for this do not fit (changing /a/ to /i/, and repurposing the adjectivizing suffix to instead form a noun). The modern verb tsubureru had the form tsuburu in older stages of the language. The tsuburi reading for may more likely represent a nominalization derived from this older verb, following normal patterns for creating nouns from verbs.

    PronunciationEdit

    • (Irregular reading)
      • IPA(key): [t͡sɨᵝbɯ̟ᵝɾʲi]

    NounEdit

    (hiragana つぶり, rōmaji tsuburi)

    1. head

    Etymology 6Edit

    Kanji in this term
    つむり
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    From tsuburi above. Bilabial plosive /b/ becomes bilabial nasal /m/.

    PronunciationEdit

    • (Irregular reading)

    NounEdit

    (hiragana つむり, rōmaji tsumuri)

    1. head
    2. hair of the head

    Etymology 7Edit

    Kanji in this term
    つむ
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    Shortened from tsumuri above.[1]

    PronunciationEdit

    • (Irregular reading)

    NounEdit

    (hiragana つむ, rōmaji tsumu)

    1. head
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 8Edit

    Kanji in this term
    こうべ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    /kamipe//kampe//kaube//kɔːbe//koːbe/

    Compound of either (kami, upper) or (kami, hair) (likely cognates) with the suffix (pe, location, direction).[1][2][4]

    Alternatively, may be an alteration from (kabu, “head”, see above) + (ue, up).[1]

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana こうべ, rōmaji kōbe, historical hiragana かうべ)

    1. head
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 9Edit

    Kanji in this term
    どたま
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    Contraction of (do, super-, often used ironically as a derogatory prefix) +‎ (atama, head).

    PronunciationEdit

    • (Irregular reading)

    NounEdit

    (hiragana どたま, rōmaji dotama)

    1. (derogatory) head
    Usage notesEdit

    Often spelled in hiragana, as どたま.

    Etymology 10Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    /du//d͡zu//zu/

    From Middle Chinese (MC dəu). The goon reading, so likely an earlier borrowing.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji zu, historical hiragana )

    1. head
    Usage notesEdit

    This reading is more often found in compounds, such as 頭痛 (zutsū, a headache).

    IdiomsEdit

    Etymology 11Edit

    Kanji in this term
    とう
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC dəu). The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing. The shift from initial /d/ to voiceless /t/ is due to influence or reborrowing from a later stage of the Chinese language. Compare modern Mandarin reading tóu, Cantonese tau4, Min Nan tao5.

    PronunciationEdit

    CounterEdit

    (hiragana とう, rōmaji -tō)

    1. heads of large animals (cows, horses)
       ()わせて (せん) (さん) (びゃ) () (とう) (あま)りが (しゅっ) ()され、全国各地 (ぜんこくかくち) (りゅう) (つう)した。
      Awasete sen sanbyaku amari ga shukka sare, zenkoku kakuchi ni ryūtsū shita.
      Altogether over 1300 heads of cattle have been distributed throughout the country.

    NounEdit

    (hiragana とう, rōmaji )

    1. head
    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    4. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

    Further readingEdit


    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (du) (hangeul )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Northern Amami-OshimaEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (tsuburi), dialectal (tsuburo), itself probably a compound of (tsubu, round thing, such as a grain) + (ro, suffix indicating a state or condition).

    KanjiEdit

    (hiragana つぃぶる, romaji tsiburu)

    NounEdit

    (hiragana つぃぶる, romaji tsiburu)

    1. head

    Oki-No-ErabuEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (tsuburi), dialectal (tsuburo), itself probably a compound of (tsubu, round thing, such as a grain) + (ro, suffix indicating a state or condition).

    KanjiEdit

    (hiragana ちぶる, romaji chiburu)

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ちぶる, romaji chiburu)

    1. head
    2. an intelligent person

    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (hiragana ちぶる, romaji chiburu)

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (tsuburi), dialectal (tsuburo), itself probably a compound of (tsubu, round thing, such as a grain) + (ro, suffix indicating a state or condition).

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ちぶる, romaji chiburu)

    1. head
    2. an intelligent person

    CompoundsEdit


    Southern Amami-OshimaEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (tsuburi), dialectal (tsuburo), itself probably a compound of (tsubu, round thing, such as a grain) + (ro, suffix indicating a state or condition).

    KanjiEdit

    (hiragana つぃぶる, romaji tsiburu)

    NounEdit

    (hiragana つぃぶる, romaji tsiburu)

    1. head

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (đầu)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    YaeyamaEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (tsuburi), dialectal (tsuburo), itself probably a compound of (tsubu, round thing, such as a grain) + (ro, suffix indicating a state or condition).

    KanjiEdit

    (hiragana つぶり, romaji tsuburi, hiragana つぃぶる, romaji tsiburu, hiragana つぃぶるぃ, romaji tsiburi)

    NounEdit

    (hiragana つぶり, romaji tsuburi, hiragana つぃぶる, romaji tsiburu, hiragana つぃぶるぃ, romaji tsiburi)

    1. head

    YoronEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (tsuburi), dialectal (tsuburo), itself probably a compound of (tsubu, round thing, such as a grain) + (ro, suffix indicating a state or condition).

    KanjiEdit

    (hiragana ちぶる, romaji chiburu)

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ちぶる, romaji chiburu)

    1. head
    2. an intelligent person