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U+982D, 頭
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-982D

[U+982C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+982E]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 181 +7, 16 strokes, cangjie input 一廿一月金 (MTMBC), four-corner 11186, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1404, character 20
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 43490
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1921, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4372, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+982D

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*toː
*toː, *roː
*toː, *doːs
*toːs
*tʰoː
*doː
*doːs
*doːs, *dos
*doːs
*doːs
*doːs
*doːs
*doːs
*doːs
*doːs
*djoʔ
*djoʔ
*toːnʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *doː): phonetic  (OC *doːs) + semantic .

EtymologyEdit

Replaced earlier (OC *hljuʔ, *hljus, “head”).

PronunciationEdit


Note: tau4-2 - “leader”.
Note: heu3* - “leader”.
Note:
  • thâu - vernacular;
  • thiô/thô͘ - literary;
  • thô - only used in 饅頭.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (7)
Final () (137)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/dəu/
Pan
Wuyun
/dəu/
Shao
Rongfen
/dəu/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/dəw/
Li
Rong
/du/
Wang
Li
/dəu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/dʱə̯u/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
tóu
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
tóu
Middle
Chinese
‹ duw ›
Old
Chinese
/*[m-t]ˤo/
English head

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 2465
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*doː/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. (anatomy) head
    不再 / 不再  ―  tóu bùzài tòng le.  ―  My head doesn't hurt any more.
  2. hair
    /   ―  tóu  ―  to wash one's hair
  3. top; tip; end
  4. chief; boss; leader
  5. remnant; end
  6. Classifier for livestock. all nouns using this classifier
    /   ―  Wǒ yǒu liǎng tóu zhū.  ―  I have two pigs.
  7. first; leading
  8. Diminutive suffix.

SynonymsEdit

Dialectal synonyms of (“head”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 頭部頭顱頭腦
Mandarin Beijing 腦袋腦袋瓜兒腦袋瓜子腦殼
Taiwan 腦袋
Tianjin 腦袋腦瓜子腦袋瓜子腦袋瓜兒
Harbin 腦殼兒腦殼子腦子腦瓜兒腦瓜子腦袋腦袋瓜兒腦袋瓜子
Shenyang 腦袋
Hailar 腦袋
Ulan Hot 腦袋腦袋瓜兒
Tongliao 腦袋
Chifeng
Baochang
Bayanhot 腦袋
Jinan 腦袋腦袋瓜子腦瓜子腦瓜兒
Muping 腦袋瓜子 derogatory
Luoyang 低腦
Jiedian 等腦
Xi'an 𦠿
Xining
Xuzhou 棗木 dated, humorous
Yinchuan
Lanzhou 頭蛋骨得勒 derogatory
Ürümqi
Wuhan 腦殼
Chengdu 腦殼
Guiyang 腦殼
Guilin 腦殼
Liuzhou 頭殼腦殼
Kunming 腦殼
Yangzhou
Nanjing
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou 頭殼
Hong Kong 頭殼
Shunde
Zhongshan
Dongguan 腦殼
Hong Kong (Weitou) 頭殼
Taishan 頭殼
Doumen
Kaiping
Shaoguan 頭殼
Yunfu 頭殼
Yangjiang 頭殼
Xinyi 頭殼
Lianjiang 頭殼
Nanning
Wuzhou
Yulin
Hepu 頭殼
Kuala Lumpur
Gan Nanchang 腦蓋
Lichuan
Pingxiang 腦殼
Hakka Meixian 頭那
Xingning 頭那
Huidong 頭那
Qujiang 頭那
Xiaosanjiang 頭那
Luchuan
Changting 頭那
Pingyu 頭那
Wuping 頭那
Liancheng 頭那
Ninghua 腦殼
Yudu 腦蓋腦殼
Ruijin 腦蓋頭那殼
Shicheng 腦蓋腦殼
Shangyou 腦蓋
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 頭那
Liudui (S. Sixian) 頭那
Hsinchu (Hailu) 頭那
Dongshi (Dabu) 頭那
Zhuolan (Raoping) 頭那
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 頭那
Hong Kong 頭那
Sabah 頭那
Senai 頭那
Singkawang 頭那
Huizhou Jixi 腦殼
Jin Taiyuan 得腦乾骷髏 derogatory骷髏 derogatory
Xinzhou 得腦
Jining 腦袋
Hohhot 腦袋
Baotou 腦袋
Dongsheng
Linhe 腦袋
Haibowan 腦袋
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou 頭腦頭首
Fuqing
Matsu 頭首
Min Nan Xiamen 頭殼
Quanzhou 頭殼
Zhangzhou 頭殼
Taipei 頭殼
Kaohsiung 頭殼
Tainan 頭殼
Taichung 頭殼
Hsinchu 頭殼
Lukang 頭殼
Sanxia 頭殼
Yilan 頭殼
Kinmen 頭殼
Magong 頭殼
Penang 頭殼
Singapore 頭殼
Philippines (Manila) 頭殼
Pingnan
Chaozhou 頭殼
Shantou 頭殼
Haifeng 頭殼頭殼顱
Johor Bahru
Haikou 頭顱頭殼
Leizhou 頭顱殼升
Puxian Min Putian
Pinghua Nanning 頭殼
Guilin
Wu Shanghai 頭骷顱骷顱頭 often derogatory骷郎頭 often derogatory
Suzhou 骷郎頭六斤四兩
Hangzhou 腦頭瓜
Wenzhou 六斤四 secret
Chongming 頭爿
Danyang 腦袋瓜頭骷郎
Jinhua 葫粒頭 humorous
Ningbo 骷顱頭骷郎頭骷顱頭甏 derogatory骷顱頭瓶 derogatory六斤四兩 humorous
Xiang Changsha 腦殼
Shuangfeng 腦殼
Loudi 腦殼
Quanzhou 腦殼

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Kanji in this term
あたま
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese of unknown derivation. Theories include:

  • Compound of (a tama, literally heaven, sky + ball). This is problematic phonetically, as appears historically as ama or ame, not as just a
  • Compound of 当て (ate ma, literally putting something in contact + space, gap), referring to the head as a moxibustion point. This is also problematic phonetically, as the shift from ate to ata necessitates a change in meaning of the underlying verb. This is also problematic semantically, as the (ma) term refers more specifically to a gap or space.
  • Compound of (ate ma, literally noble + space), referring to the most important part of the body. However, the use of (ma) in this way is again problematic. Moreover, (ate, noble) appears in The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter dating to the 900s CE, while (atama) with a sense of fontanelle appears in the Wamyō Ruijushō dated 938 CE, leaving insufficient time for either the semantic or phonetic drift required.[1][2]

Historically, this term first appears with a sense of fontanelle, in reference to the soft place on the top of an infant's head where the bones of the skull have not yet fused. As such, a more likely derivation might be as a compound of 当た (ata, not quite touching, not quite in contact, possibly a fossilized 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) of classical verb 当つ (atsu), root of modern 当たる (ataru, to touch, to come into contact)) +‎ (ma, space, gap, opening).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana あたま, rōmaji atama)

  1. head (body part)
     (あたま) (いた)い。
    Atama ga itai.
    My head hurts.
  2. (anatomy, archaic, possibly obsolete) the fontanelle part of the skull
IdiomsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
かしら
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese.[1] Found as a standalone noun in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE, and as a counter in the Kojiki, dating to 712 CE.

Alternative formsEdit

  • (head of a doll):

PronunciationEdit

CounterEdit

(hiragana かしら, rōmaji -kashira)

  1. a head, as when counting people, or cattle or other livestock

NounEdit

(hiragana かしら, rōmaji kashira)

  1. the head as a whole
  2. boss, leader
  3. top part of a Chinese character
  4. the head of a doll
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
かぶり
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Cognate with and shift in meaning from かぶり (kaburi, covering; hat, crown), spelled in kanji as 被り or .

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana かぶり, rōmaji kaburi)

  1. head
IdiomsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
かぶ
Grade: 2
Irregular

Cognate with  (かぶ) (kabu, stump; root), from a general sense of lump.[1]

PronunciationEdit

  • (Irregular reading)

NounEdit

(hiragana かぶ, rōmaji kabu)

  1. (obsolete) head
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 5Edit

Kanji in this term
つぶり
Grade: 2
Irregular

Cognate with (tsubu, round thing, such as a grain), 禿ぶ (tsubu, to go bald, from the idea of one's head becoming round), 円ら (tsubura, round, adjective), 潰れる (tsubureru, to become rounded, as from wear and tear, or from crushing).[1]

Some sources[2] derive this as a shift from 円ら (tsubura, round, adjective). However, the phonology and semantics for this do not fit (changing /a/ to /i/, and repurposing the adjectivizing suffix to instead form a noun). The modern verb tsubureru had the form tsuburu in older stages of the language. The tsuburi reading for may more likely represent a nominalization derived from this older verb, following normal patterns for creating nouns from verbs.

PronunciationEdit

  • (Irregular reading)
    • IPA(key): [t͡sɨᵝbɯ̟ᵝɾi]

NounEdit

(hiragana つぶり, rōmaji tsuburi)

  1. head

Etymology 6Edit

Kanji in this term
つむり
Grade: 2
Irregular

From tsuburi above. Bilabial plosive /b/ becomes bilabial nasal /m/.

PronunciationEdit

  • (Irregular reading)

NounEdit

(hiragana つむり, rōmaji tsumuri)

  1. head
  2. hair of the head

Etymology 7Edit

Kanji in this term
つむ
Grade: 2
Irregular

Shortened from tsumuri above.[1]

PronunciationEdit

  • (Irregular reading)
    • IPA(key): [t͡sɨᵝmɯ̟ᵝ]

NounEdit

(hiragana つむ, rōmaji tsumu)

  1. head
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 8Edit

Kanji in this term
こうべ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

/kamipe//kampe//kaube//kɔːbe//koːbe/

Compound of either (kami, upper) or (kami, hair) (likely cognates) with the suffix (pe, location, direction).[1][2][4]

Alternatively, may be an alteration from (kabu, “head”, see above) + (ue, up).[1]

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana こうべ, rōmaji kōbe, historical hiragana かうべ)

  1. head
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 9Edit

Kanji in this term
どたま
Grade: 2
Irregular

Contraction of (do, super-, often used ironically as a derogatory prefix) +‎ (atama, head).

PronunciationEdit

  • (Irregular reading)

NounEdit

(hiragana どたま, rōmaji dotama)

  1. (derogatory) head
Usage notesEdit

Often spelled in hiragana, as どたま.

Etymology 10Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
on’yomi

/du//d͡zu//zu/

From Middle Chinese (MC dəu). The goon reading, so likely an earlier borrowing.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji zu, historical hiragana )

  1. head
Usage notesEdit

This reading is more often found in compounds, such as 頭痛 (zutsū, a headache).

IdiomsEdit

Etymology 11Edit

Kanji in this term
とう
Grade: 2
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC dəu). The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing. The shift from initial /d/ to voiceless /t/ is due to influence or reborrowing from a later stage of the Chinese language. Compare modern Mandarin reading tóu, Cantonese tau4, Min Nan tao5.

PronunciationEdit

CounterEdit

(hiragana とう, rōmaji -tō)

  1. heads of large animals (cows, horses)
     ()わせて (せん) (さん) (びゃ) () (とう) (あま)りが (しゅっ) ()され、全国各地 (ぜんこくかくち) (りゅう) (つう)した。
    Awasete sen sanbyaku amari ga shukka sare, zenkoku kakuchi ni ryūtsū shita.
    Altogether over 1300 heads of cattle have been distributed throughout the country.

NounEdit

(hiragana とう, rōmaji )

  1. head
Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  4. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, ISBN 4-09-501211-0

Further readingEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(du) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer tu, Yale twu)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Northern Amami-OshimaEdit

EtymologyEdit

Cognate with mainland Japanese (tsuburi), dialectal (tsuburo), itself probably a compound of (tsubu, round thing, such as a grain) + (ro, suffix indicating a state or condition).

KanjiEdit

(hiragana つぃぶる, romaji tsiburu)

NounEdit

(hiragana つぃぶる, romaji tsiburu)

  1. head

Oki-No-ErabuEdit

EtymologyEdit

Cognate with mainland Japanese (tsuburi), dialectal (tsuburo), itself probably a compound of (tsubu, round thing, such as a grain) + (ro, suffix indicating a state or condition).

KanjiEdit

(hiragana ちぶる, romaji chiburu)

NounEdit

(hiragana ちぶる, romaji chiburu)

  1. head
  2. an intelligent person

OkinawanEdit

KanjiEdit

(hiragana ちぶる, romaji chiburu)

EtymologyEdit

Cognate with mainland Japanese (tsuburi), dialectal (tsuburo), itself probably a compound of (tsubu, round thing, such as a grain) + (ro, suffix indicating a state or condition).

NounEdit

(hiragana ちぶる, romaji chiburu)

  1. head
  2. an intelligent person

CompoundsEdit


Southern Amami-OshimaEdit

EtymologyEdit

Cognate with mainland Japanese (tsuburi), dialectal (tsuburo), itself probably a compound of (tsubu, round thing, such as a grain) + (ro, suffix indicating a state or condition).

KanjiEdit

(hiragana つぃぶる, romaji tsiburu)

NounEdit

(hiragana つぃぶる, romaji tsiburu)

  1. head

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(đầu)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

YaeyamaEdit

EtymologyEdit

Cognate with mainland Japanese (tsuburi), dialectal (tsuburo), itself probably a compound of (tsubu, round thing, such as a grain) + (ro, suffix indicating a state or condition).

KanjiEdit

(hiragana つぶり, romaji tsuburi, hiragana つぃぶる, romaji tsiburu, hiragana つぃぶるぃ, romaji tsiburi)

NounEdit

(hiragana つぶり, romaji tsuburi, hiragana つぃぶる, romaji tsiburu, hiragana つぃぶるぃ, romaji tsiburi)

  1. head

YoronEdit

EtymologyEdit

Cognate with mainland Japanese (tsuburi), dialectal (tsuburo), itself probably a compound of (tsubu, round thing, such as a grain) + (ro, suffix indicating a state or condition).

KanjiEdit

(hiragana ちぶる, romaji chiburu)

NounEdit

(hiragana ちぶる, romaji chiburu)

  1. head
  2. an intelligent person