U+9B8E, 鮎
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9B8E

[U+9B8D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9B8F]
See also:

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 195 +5, 16 strokes, cangjie input 弓火卜口 (NFYR), composition)

  1. A sheatfish, the Japanese catfish (Silurus asotus, syn. Parasilurus asotus).

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1468, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 46070
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2001, character 16
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4680, character 14
  • Unihan data for U+9B8E

See alsoEdit


ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*taːm
*ɦlaːm, *hljems, *hl'eːms
*ɦlaːm
*rteːm, *rdeːms, *teːm, *tʰjeb
*rteːms
*sreːm
*nem
*nem
*slem, *ʔl'ɯm
*tem
*tem, *teːms, *tʰeːm
*tems, *tʰem
*tʰem, *ɡrem, *tʰeːb
*ʔljem, *tjems
*tjemʔ
*tjems, *teːm
*hljem, *hljems
*hljem, *teːms
*njem
*lem
*teːm
*tiːm
*teːmʔ
*teːmʔ, *teːms
*tiːms
*tiːms, *tim
*tʰeːm
*deːmʔ
*neːm
*neːm
*ʔl'ɯm
*teːb
*teːb, *tʰeːb
*tʰeːb
*tʰeːb
*tʰeːb
*tʰeːb

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (8)
Final () (157)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/nem/
Pan
Wuyun
/nem/
Shao
Rongfen
/nɛm/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/nɛm/
Li
Rong
/nem/
Wang
Li
/niem/
Bernard
Karlgren
/niem/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
nián
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 16733
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*neːm/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

  1. ayu, sweetfish

ReadingsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
 
(ayu, ai): the ayu or sweetfish.
Kanji in this term
あゆ
Jinmeiyō
kun'yomi

Uncertain.

  • One commonly encountered etymology suggests that ayu may derive from (ae, hosting someone to a meal), in reference to the way that this fish may be used in Shinto offerings.[1] However, this would have been pronounced ape in ancient times, and while this ape did later become ahe, and a shift from -he to -ye did occur in many terms during the Muromachi period[2], the word ayu in reference to the fish appeared in the Man'yōshū dating to the late 700s at the latest, and is thus too old for this shift to have occurred.
  • Another common etymology states that ayu may be from extinct Old Japanese term 落ゆ(ayu, to fall, as nuts from a tree; to flow down, as liquid in a stream), in reference to the way that ayu swim downstream to spawn in the autumn.[1] Some references[3] suggest that this is not very eventful and that this etymology is therefore unlikely. However, there are terms specific to the ayu downstream migration, such as 落鮎(ochiayu, ayu migrating downstream to spawn) and 鮎落つ(ayuotsu, ayu migrating downstream to spawn), suggesting that this event has been culturally important enough that the 落ゆ(ayu) derivation may be plausible.
  • Alternatively, this term may be borrowed from Ainu アイ(ay, arrow) in reference to how fast the fish moves. See also obsolete Japanese reading ai below.

The kanji spelling in reference to sweetfish is specific to Japan, probably in reference to the way the fish () stakes out its territory (). There is another tale wherein Empress Jingū caught an ayu and thereby prophesied (also spelled ) the outcome of a battle, but this is likely a folk etymology. In China and elsewhere, the character refers instead to catfish.[2]

The kanji spelling 年魚 is in reference to the common one-year lifespan of this fish.[2][4]

The kanji spelling 香魚 is in reference to its sweet-tasting flesh.[4]

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana あゆ, katakana アユ, romaji ayu)

  1. A sweetfish, an amphidromous fish of East Asia, the only member of its genus, Plecoglossus altivelis, prized for its sweet-tasting flesh. It is a game fish and is also subject to extensive aquaculture.
Usage notesEdit

As with many terms used in biology, this term is often spelled in katakana.

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
あい
Jinmeiyō
kun'yomi

Obsolete variant of ayu pronunciation. May have been the original pronunciation.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana あい, romaji ai)

  1. (obsolete) see ayu above
Usage notesEdit

Found in some compounds. Generally not used on its own.

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
なまず
Jinmeiyō
kun'yomi

The kanji spelling in reference to sweetfish is specific to Japan. In China and elsewhere, the character refers instead to catfish.[2] See the entry for more detail about the Japanese term namazu.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • (more common)

NounEdit

‎(hiragana なまず, romaji namazu, historical hiragana なまづ)

  1. (rare) a catfish

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988: あて字のおもしろ雑学 (Interesting Ateji Trivia, in Japanese), Freelance Trivia Writers, p.46, Nagaokashoten, Ltd.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  3. ^ Gogen Allguide, http://gogen-allguide.com/a/ayu_sakana.html
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  5. 5.0 5.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(jeom) (hangeul , revised jeom, McCune-Reischauer chŏm, Yale cem)

  1. (메기) catfish, sheatfish

SynonymsEdit

  • (언, eon)

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(chẻm, niềm, nhương)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.