U+9F3E, 鼾
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9F3E

[U+9F3D]
CJK Unified Ideographs 鼿
[U+9F3F]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 209, +3, 17 strokes, cangjie input 竹中一十 (HLMJ), four-corner 21240, composition)

Further readingEdit

  • KangXi: page 1530, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 48505
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2066, character 24
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4779, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+9F3E

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms (ancient)
⿰𢍂干 (second-round simplified)

Glyph originEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *qʰaːn, *ɢaːns): semantic + phonetic (OC *kaːn).

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *hal (to snore). Compare Tibetan ཧལ (hal, to pant; to wheeze; to snort; to snore).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • hôaⁿ/hoaⁿ - vernacular;
  • hôⁿ/kôⁿ - also written as ;
  • han - literary.
Note:
  • huan5 - vernacular;
  • hang1 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (32) (33)
    Final () (61) (61)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () I I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /hɑn/ /ɦɑnH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /hɑn/ /ɦɑnH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /xɑn/ /ɣɑnH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /han/ /ɦanH/
    Li
    Rong
    /xɑn/ /ɣɑnH/
    Wang
    Li
    /xɑn/ /ɣɑnH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /xɑn/ /ɣɑnH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    hān hàn
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 3606 3621
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1 1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qʰaːn/ /*ɢaːns/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (literary or Min Nan) to snore
    2. snore; snoring
        ―  hān  ―  to snore
    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

    PronunciationEdit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (Min Nan) the sonud of snoring; to snore

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    かん
    Hyōgaiji
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC hɑn, ɦɑnH, “snoring”).

    Only found in compounds. Not used in isolation.

    PronunciationEdit

    AffixEdit

    (かん) (kan

    1. snoring
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    いびき
    Hyōgaiji
    kun’yomi

    Originally a compound of (i, breath, breathing) +‎ 引き (hiki, pulling, drawing, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 引く hiku “to pull, to draw”).[1][2] The hiki changes to biki as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (いびき) (ibiki

    1. snoring, a snore
    Derived termsEdit

    VerbEdit

    (いびき)する (ibiki surusuru (stem (いびき) (ibiki shi), past (いびき)した (ibiki shita))

    1. to snore
    ConjugationEdit
    SynonymsEdit
    Usage notesEdit

    The verb sense “to snore” is more commonly expressed using the verbal phrases 掻く (ibiki o kaku, literally to make a snoring sound) or 立てる (ibiki o tateru, literally to raise a snore, to put up a snore).

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    くつち
    Hyōgaiji
    kun’yomi

    Apparently the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of obsolete verb 鼾つ (kutsutsu, to sleep while snoring, possibly onomatopoeic).[1]

    The epilepsy sense may have arisen from how one's breathing may be spastic and vaguely similar to snoring when suffering an epileptic seizure.

    However, the conjugation of this putative verb is unknown, and it is only encountered in what would be the nominalized 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of kutsuchi.[1] This leaves open the possibility of alternative origins:

    • May be a compound of (kutsu, mouth, the bound form of modern (kuchi), only found in compounds) +‎ (chi, wind, from the way that snoring often happens when breathing through the mouth, or from the way that an epileptic seizure may involve spastic breathing vaguely similar to snoring).
    • The epilepsy sense may be a compound of (kutsu, mouth, the bound form of modern (kuchi), only found in compounds) +‎ (chi, blood, from the common occurrence of biting one's tongue during an epileptic seizure).

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (くつち) (kutsuchi

    1. (archaic, rare) snoring
    2. (archaic, rare) epilepsy
    Derived termsEdit
    SynonymsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (han) (hangeul , McCune–Reischauer han, Yale han)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: han

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.