U+9F3E, 鼾
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9F3E

[U+9F3D]
CJK Unified Ideographs 鼿
[U+9F3F]

Translingual edit

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 209, +3, 17 strokes, cangjie input 竹中一十 (HLMJ), four-corner 21240, composition )

Further reading edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1530, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 48505
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2066, character 24
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4779, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+9F3E

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
2nd round simp. 𰯶
alternative forms ancient

Glyph origin edit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *qʰaːn, *ɢaːns) : semantic + phonetic (OC *kaːn).

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *hal (to snore). Compare Tibetan ཧལ (hal, to pant; to wheeze; to snort; to snore).

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • hôaⁿ/hoaⁿ - vernacular;
  • hôⁿ/kôⁿ - also written as ;
  • han - literary.
Note:
  • huan5 - vernacular;
  • hang1 - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (32) (33)
Final () (61) (61)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I I
Fanqie
Baxter xan hanH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/hɑn/ /ɦɑnH/
Pan
Wuyun
/hɑn/ /ɦɑnH/
Shao
Rongfen
/xɑn/ /ɣɑnH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/han/ /ɦanH/
Li
Rong
/xɑn/ /ɣɑnH/
Wang
Li
/xɑn/ /ɣɑnH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xɑn/ /ɣɑnH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
hān hàn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
hon1 hon6
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 3606 3621
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qʰaːn/ /*ɢaːns/
Notes

Definitions edit

  1. (literary or Southern Min) to snore
  2. snore; snoring
      ―  hān  ―  to snore
Synonyms edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 2 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation edit

Definitions edit

  1. (Hokkien) the sound of snoring; to snore

References edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

Readings edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
かん
Hyōgaiji
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC xan|hanH, “snoring”).

Only found in compounds. Not used in isolation.

Pronunciation edit

Affix edit

(かん) (kan

  1. snoring
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
いびき
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi

Originally a compound of (i, breath, breathing) +‎ 引き (hiki, pulling, drawing, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 引く hiku “to pull, to draw”).[1][2] The hiki changes to biki as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(いびき) (ibiki

  1. snoring, a snore
Derived terms edit

Verb edit

(いびき)する (ibiki surusuru (stem (いびき) (ibiki shi), past (いびき)した (ibiki shita))

  1. to snore
Usage notes edit

The verb sense “to snore” is more commonly expressed using the verbal phrases 掻く (ibiki o kaku, literally to make a snoring sound) or 立てる (ibiki o tateru, literally to raise a snore, to put up a snore).

Conjugation edit
Synonyms edit

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term
くつち
Hyōgaiji
kun’yomi
Alternative spellings
癲狂
癲癇

Apparently the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of obsolete verb 鼾つ (kutsutsu, to sleep while snoring, possibly onomatopoeic).[1]

The epilepsy sense may have arisen from how one's breathing may be spastic and vaguely similar to snoring when suffering an epileptic seizure.

However, the conjugation of this putative verb is unknown, and it is only encountered in what would be the nominalized 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of kutsuchi.[1] This leaves open the possibility of alternative origins:

  • May be a compound of (kutsu, mouth, the bound form of modern (kuchi), only found in compounds) +‎ (chi, wind, from the way that snoring often happens when breathing through the mouth, or from the way that an epileptic seizure may involve spastic breathing vaguely similar to snoring).
  • The epilepsy sense may be a compound of (kutsu, mouth, the bound form of modern (kuchi), only found in compounds) +‎ (chi, blood, from the common occurrence of biting one's tongue during an epileptic seizure).

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): [kɯ̟ᵝt͡sɨᵝt͡ɕi]

Noun edit

(くつち) (kutsuchi

  1. (archaic, rare) snoring
  2. (archaic, rare) epilepsy
Synonyms edit
Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean edit

Hanja edit

(han) (hangeul , McCune–Reischauer han, Yale han)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Nôm readings: han

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.