# 서른

## KoreanEdit

### EtymologyEdit

First attested in the *Seokbo sangjeol* (釋譜詳節 / 석보상절), 1447, as Middle Korean *셜흔〮* (Yale: *syèlhún*).

### PronunciationEdit

- (
*SK Standard/Seoul*) IPA^{(key)}: [sʰʌ̹ɾɯn] - Phonetic hangul: [서른]

Romanizations | |
---|---|

Revised Romanization^{?} | seoreun |

Revised Romanization (translit.)^{?} | seoleun |

McCune–Reischauer^{?} | sŏrŭn |

Yale Romanization^{?} | selun |

### NumeralEdit

**서른** • (seoreun)

#### Usage notesEdit

In modern Korean, numbers are usually written in Arabic numerals.

The Korean language has two sets of numerals: a native set of numerals inherited from Old Korean, and a Sino-Korean set which was borrowed from Middle Chinese in the first millennium C.E.

Native classifiers take native numerals.

- 개
**한**마리 (gae**han**mari, “**one**dog”, native numeral) - 나무
**두**그루 (namu**du**geuru, “**two**trees”, native numeral)

Some Sino-Korean classifiers take native numerals, others take Sino-Korean numerals, while yet others take both.

- 종이
**두**장(張) (jong'i**du**jang, “**two**sheets of paper”, native numeral) **이**분(分) (**i**bun, “**two**minutes”, Sino-Korean numeral)**서른**/**삼십**명(名) (**seoreun**/**samsip**myeong, “**thirty**people”, both sets possible)

Recently loaned classifiers generally take Sino-Korean numerals.

For many terms, a native numeral has a quantifying sense, whereas a Sino-Korean numeral has a sense of labeling.

**세**반(班) (**se**ban, “**three**school classes”, native numeral)**삼**반(班) (**sam**ban, “Class Number**Three**”, Sino-Korean numeral)

When used in isolation, native numerals refer to objects of that number and are used in counting and quantifying, whereas Sino-Korean numerals refer to the numbers in a more mathematical sense.

**하나**만 더 주세요 (**hana**-man deo juse-yo, “Could you give me just**one**more, please”, native numeral)**일**더하기**일**은? (**Il**deohagi**ir**-eun?, “What's**one**plus**one**?”, Sino-Korean numeral)

While older stages of Korean had native numerals up to the thousands, native numerals currently exist only up to ninety-nine, and Sino-Korean is used for all higher numbers. There is also a tendency—particularly among younger speakers—to uniformly use Sino-Korean numerals for the higher tens as well, so that native numerals such as 일흔 (ilheun, “seventy”) or 아흔 (aheun, “ninety”) are becoming less common.