KoreanEdit

EtymologyEdit

First attested in the Jīlín lèishì (鷄林類事 / 계림유사), 1103, as Late Old Korean 黑根 (Yale: *hùkú-n), reflecting the realis gerundive form with Old Korean (*-n). Hence the Old Korean verbal stem would have been *hùkú-. Beyond Old Korean, also connected to Baekje (*ke-n).

In the Hangul script, first attested in the Yongbi eocheonga (龍飛御天歌 / 용비어천가), 1447, as Middle Korean 크〮다〮 (Yale: khútá).

PronunciationEdit

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [kxɯda̠]
    • (file)
  • Phonetic hangul: []
Romanizations
Revised Romanization?keuda
Revised Romanization (translit.)?keuda
McCune–Reischauer?k'ŭda
Yale Romanization?khuta

AdjectiveEdit

크다 (keuda) (infinitive , sequential 크니)

  1. to be big, large (both physical and figurative)
    문제keun munjebig problem
    크다kiga keudaHe is tall (literally, “His height is large”)
    Antonym: 작다 (jakda)
  2. to be great
    사람keun sarama great person
    Synonyms: 훌륭하다 (hullyunghada), 위대하다 (widaehada)
  3. (of a specific sound) to be loud
    Synonym: 시끄럽다 (sikkeureopda)
    Antonym: 작다 (jakda)

ConjugationEdit

VerbEdit

크다 (keuda) (infinitive , sequential 크니) (intransitive)

  1. to grow; to get bigger
    Synonym: 자라다 (jarada)
  2. (of a child) to grow up, to become an adult
    Synonyms: 자라다 (jarada), 어른 되다 (eoreun-i doeda)

ConjugationEdit

See alsoEdit

  • (dae), the hanja for largeness
  • (tae), another hanja for largeness

Middle KoreanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Korean *hùkú-; see the Korean entry for more.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /kʰɨ˦ta˦/, [kʰɨ˦da˦]

VerbEdit

크〮다〮 (khútá) (infinitive 커〮, sequential 크〮니〮) (intransitive)

  1. to grow, to get bigger; to be big
    Synonym: 하다〮 (hàtá)
    Antonym: 쟉〯다〮 (cyǎktá)
  2. to become great; to be great

Usage notesEdit

Typically used adjectivally in the past tense, i.e. "which has gotten bigger" > "which is big".

ConjugationEdit

Selected conjugations of 크〮다〮 (khútá), Accentual class H
Note that many forms are unattested/merely hypothetical.
Selected plain sentence-final forms
Declarative Interrogative Modulated
declarative
Polar question Wh-word question Second-person subject
Past 크〮다〮 (khútá)
크〮니라〮 (khúnìlá)
큰〮가〮 (khúnká)
크〮녀〮 (khúnyé)
큰〮고〮 (khúnkwó)
크〮뇨〮 (khúnyó)
큰〮다〮 (khúntá) 쿠〮라〮 (khwúlá)
Present 크〮ᄂᆞ다〮 (khúnòtá)
크〮ᄂᆞ〮니라〮 (khúnónìlá)
크〮ᄂᆞᆫ가〮 (khúnònká)
크〮ᄂᆞ녀〮 (khúnònyé)
크〮ᄂᆞᆫ고〮 (khúnònkwó)
크〮ᄂᆞ뇨〮 (khúnònyó)
크〮ᄂᆞᆫ다〮 (khúnòntá) 크〮노라〮 (khúnwòlá)
Conjectural 크〮리라〮 (khúlìlá) 크ᇙ〮가〮 (khúlqká)
크〮려〮 (khúlyé)
크ᇙ〮고〮 (khúlqkwó)
크〮료〮 (khúlyó)
크ᇙ〮다〮 (khúlqtá) 쿠〮리라〮 (khwúlìlá)
Retrospective/
imperfective
크〮더라〮 (khútèlá)
크〮더〮니라〮 (khúténìlá)
크〮던가〮 (khútènká)
크〮더녀〮 (khútènyé)
크〮던고〮 (khútènkwó)
크〮더뇨〮 (khútènyó)
크〮던다〮 (khútèntá) 크〮다라〮 (khútàlá)
(-ke-) form 크〮거다〮 (khúkètá)
크〮거〮니라〮 (khúkénìlá)
크〮거녀〮 (khúkènyé) 크〮거뇨〮 (khúkènyó) 크〮건다〮 (khúkèntá) 크〮과라〮 (khúkwàlá)
Promissive/Hortative Imperative Exclamatory/Emotive
쿠〮마〮 (khwúmá, promissive)
크〮져〮 (khúcyé, hortative)
크〮라〮 (khúlá, order)
크〮고라〮 (khúkwòlá, request)
큰〮뎌〮 (khúntyé), 클〮쎠〮 (khúlssyé)
크〮도다〮 (khútwòtá), 크〮돗다〮 (khútwòstá)
케〮라〮 (khéylá)
Selected highly deferential sentence-final forms
Past 크〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (khúngìtá)
크〮니〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (khúníngìtá)
크〮니〮ᅌᅵᆺ가〮 (khúníngìská) 크〮니〮ᅌᅵᆺ고〮 (khúníngìskwó) no separate forms 쿠〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (khwúngìtá)
Present 크〮ᄂᆞ〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (khúnóngìtá)
크〮ᄂᆞ니〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (khúnòníngìtá)
크〮ᄂᆞ니〮ᅌᅵᆺ가〮 (khúnòníngìská) 크〮ᄂᆞ니〮ᅌᅵᆺ고〮 (khúnòníngìskwó) 크〮노〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (khúnwóngìtá)
Conjectural 크〮리〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (khúlíngìtá) 크〮리〮ᅌᅵᆺ가〮 (khúlíngìská) 크〮리〮ᅌᅵᆺ고〮 (khúlíngìskwó) 쿠〮리〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (khwúlíngìtá)
Promissive/Hortative Imperative Exclamatory/Emotive
쿠〮마〮 (khwúmá, promissive)
크〮사〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (khúsángìtá, hortative)
크〮쇼셔〮 (khúsyòsyé, order)
크〮고〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (khúkwóngìtá, request)
크〮도다〮 (khútwòtá), 크〮돗다〮 (khútwòstá)
케〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (khéyngìtá)
Selected honorific declarative forms
Past Present Conjectural Retrospective/
imperfective
(-ke-) form
Plain subject-honoring 크〮시다〮 (khúsìtá)
크〮시〮니라〮 (khúsínìlá)
크〮시〮ᄂᆞ다〮 (khúsínòtá)
크〮시ᄂᆞ〮니라〮 (khúsìnónìlá)
크〮시〮리라〮 (khúsílìlá) 크〮더〮시다〮 (khútésìtá)
크〮더시〮니라〮 (khútèsínìlá)
크〮거〮시다〮 (khúkésìtá)
크〮거시〮니라〮 (khúkèsínìlá)
Deferential subject-honoring 크〮시〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (khúsíngìtá)
크〮시니〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (khúsìníngìtá)
크〮시ᄂᆞ〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (khúsìnóngìtá)
크〮시〮ᄂᆞ니〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (khúsínòníngìtá)
크〮시리〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (khúsílíngìtá) 크〮더시〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (khútèsíngìtá)
크〮더〮시니〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (khútésìníngìtá)
크〮거시〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (khúkèsíngìtá)
크〮거〮시니〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (khúkésìníngìtá)
Selected connective forms
Connective Causative Conditional/situating Contrastive/concessive Purposive/desiderative Infinitive
크〮고〮 (khúkwó)
크〮며〮 (khúmyé)
크〮다가〮 (khútàká)
크〮니〮 (khúní)
크〮거ᄂᆞᆯ〮 (khúkènól)
클〮ᄊᆡ〮 (khúlssóy, only in declarative)
크〮관ᄃᆡ〮 (khúkwàntóy, only in interrogative)
크〮면〮 (khúmyén)
크〮거든〮 (khúkètún)
큰〮대〮 (khúntáy)
크〮건댄〮 (khúkèntáyn)
크〮나〮 (khúná)
쿠〮ᄃᆡ〮 (khwútóy)
큰〮ᄃᆞᆯ〮 (khúntól)
크〮건〮마ᄅᆞᆫ〮 (khúkénmàlón)
쿠〮려〮 (khwúlyé)
크〮고져〮 (khúkwòcyé, desires own action)
크〮과뎌〮 (khúkwàtyé, desires other's action)
커〮 (khé)
Adnominal/gerundive forms
Past Present Conjectural
Unmodulated non-honorific 큰〮 (khún) 크〮ᄂᆞᆫ〮 (khúnón) 크ᇙ〮 (khúlq)
Modulated non-honorific 쿤〮 (khwún) 크〮논〮 (khúnwón) 쿠ᇙ〮 (khwúlq)
Unmodulated subject-honoring 크〮신〮 (khúsín) 크〮시ᄂᆞᆫ〮 (khúsìnón) 크〮시ᇙ〮 (khúsílq)
Substantive forms
Plain Subject-honoring
쿰〮 (khwúm)
크〮샴〮 (khúsyám)

DescendantsEdit

  • Korean: 크다 (keuda)