KoreanEdit

EtymologyEdit

Of native Korean origin, from Middle Korean ᄒᆞ낳〮 (hònáh). Sometimes connected to Old Korean 一等 (*HOton), but there is no straightforward correspondence.

PronunciationEdit

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ha̠na̠]
    • (file)
  • Phonetic hangeul: []
Romanizations
Revised Romanization?hana
Revised Romanization (translit.)?hana
McCune–Reischauer?hana
Yale Romanization?hana

South Gyeongsang (Busan) pitch accent: 의 / 하에 / 하나

Syllables in red take high pitch. This word always takes high pitch only on the second syllable, except before consonant-initial multisyllabic suffixes, when it takes full low pitch.

NumeralEdit

Korean cardinal numbers
 <  0 1 2  > 
    Cardinal : 하나 (hana)
    Ordinal : 첫째 (cheotjjae)

하나 (hana)

  1. (native numeral) one (independently, without a classifier)
    하나, , 하면 출발입니다!
    Hana, dul, set hamyeon chulbarimnida!
    One, two, three, then off we go!
    하나 가지고 되겠어?
    Hanaman gajigo doegesseo?
    Will you be alright with just one?
    Synonyms: (han, one, with a noun or classifier), () (il, one, Sino-Korean numeral)
Usage notesEdit

In modern Korean, numbers are usually written in Arabic numerals.

The Korean language has two sets of numerals: a native set of numerals inherited from Old Korean, and a Sino-Korean set which was borrowed from Middle Chinese in the first millennium C.E.

Native classifiers take native numerals.

Some Sino-Korean classifiers take native numerals, others take Sino-Korean numerals, while yet others take both.

Recently loaned classifiers generally take Sino-Korean numerals.

For many terms, a native numeral has a quantifying sense, whereas a Sino-Korean numeral has a sense of labeling.

  • 반(班) (se ban, three school classes, native numeral)
  • 반(班) (sam ban, Class Number Three, Sino-Korean numeral)

When used in isolation, native numerals refer to objects of that number and are used in counting and quantifying, whereas Sino-Korean numerals refer to the numbers in a more mathematical sense.

  • 하나 주세요 (hanaman deo juseyo, Could you give me just one more, please, native numeral)
  • 더하기 ? (Il deohagi ireun?, What's one plus one?, Sino-Korean numeral)

While older stages of Korean had native numerals up to the thousands, native numerals currently exist only up to ninety-nine, and Sino-Korean is used for all higher numbers. There is also a tendency—particularly among younger speakers—to uniformly use Sino-Korean numerals for the higher tens as well, so that native numerals such as 일흔 (ilheun, “seventy”) or 아흔 (aheun, “ninety”) are becoming less common.