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-ение

Contents

RussianEdit

Alternative formsEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • -е́ние: IPA(key): [ˈʲenʲɪje]
  • -ение: IPA(key): [ʲɪnʲɪje]

SuffixEdit

-е́ние or -ение (-énije or -enije)

  1. -tion, -ence, -ance, -ity, etc. (suffix used to form abstract nouns from verbs, and occasionally from other parts of speech)
    отчи́слить (otčíslitʹ, to deduct, to dismiss)отчисле́ние (otčislénije, deduction, dismissal)
    порази́ть (porazítʹ, to defeat) (past passive participle поражённый (poražónnyj)) → пораже́ние (poražénije, defeat)
    прови́деть (provídetʹ, to foresee) (past passive participle прови́денный (provídennyj)) → прови́дение (provídenije, foresight), провиде́ние (providénije, Providence)
    обсуди́ть (obsudítʹ, to discuss) (past passive participle обсуждённый (obsuždjónnyj)) → обсужде́ние (obsuždénije, discussion)
    напра́вить (naprávitʹ, to direct) (past passive participle напра́вленный (naprávlennyj)) → направле́ние (napravlénije, direction)
    расти́ (rastí, to grow, to sprout) (third person singular растёт (rastjót)) → расте́ние (rasténije, plant)
    течь (tečʹ, to flow) (third person singular течёт (tečót)) → тече́ние (tečénije, current, flow)
    сжечь (sžečʹ, to burn up) (third person singular сожжёт (sožžót)) → сожже́ние (sožžénije, burning up)
    уме́ть (umétʹ, to be able)уме́ние (uménije, ability)

Usage notesEdit

  • The stress is usually drawn onto the suffix (e.g. отчисле́ние (otčislénije) from отчи́слить (otčíslitʹ)), but occasionally not (e.g. прови́дение (provídenije) from прови́деть (provídetʹ)).
  • This suffix is generally used only for verbs whose past passive participle ends in -енный (-ennyj) or -ённый (-jónnyj); verbs whose past passive participle ends in -анный (-annyj) normally use -ание (-anije), and verbs whose past passive participle ends in -тый (-tyj) normally use -тие (-tije).
  • The stem preceding the suffix is modified in the same way as for the past passive participle; in particular, the stem normally becomes iotated, and in cases where the stem iotates irregularly in the past passive participle (e.g. -жд- (-žd-) instead of -ж- (-ž-), or -щ- (-šč-) instead of -ч- (-č-)), the same irregularities are observed before -е́ние (-énije).
  • Note that even intransitive verbs without a past passive participle form abstract nouns in -е́ние (-énije). For such verbs of class 4 and 5 (which end in -ить (-itʹ) and -еть (-etʹ) respectively), use the stem as found in the first person singular. For such verbs of class 7 and 8 (which end in such verbs in -ти́ (-tí), -сть (-stʹ), -зть (-ztʹ) and -чь (-čʹ)), use the stem as found in the third person singular.

DeclensionEdit

Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit