-ᅀᆞᇦ-

Middle KoreanEdit

Alternative formsEdit

Followed by consonant Followed by vowel
Preceded by /-k, -p, -s/ ᄉᆞᆸ〯 (-sǒp) ᄉᆞᇦ 〮 (-sòW◌́)
Preceded by /-t/ ᄌᆞᆸ〯 (-cǒp) ᄌᆞᇦ 〮 (-còW◌́)
Preceded by /-h/ ᄊᆞᆸ〯 (-ssǒp) ᄊᆞᇦ 〮 (-ssòW◌́)
Preceded by a sonorant consonant or vowel ᅀᆞᆸ〯 (-zǒp) ᅀᆞᇦ 〮 (-zòW◌́)

After the mid-fifteenth century, Middle Korean (W) /β/ lenited to /w/, producing the following alternative forms for the pre-vowel allomorphs:

Followed by yang-vowel Followed by yang-vowel
ᄉᆞ오〮 (-sòw(ó)) ᄉᆞ우〮 (-sòw(ú))
ᄌᆞ오〮 (-còw(ó)) ᄌᆞ우〮 (-còw(ú))
ᅀᆞ오〮 (-zòw(ó)) ᅀᆞ우〮 (-zòw(ú))

EtymologyEdit

From Old Korean (*SOLPO-).

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /zʌ̀.β◌́~zʌ̀.w◌́/ (after a sonorant and before a vowel)
  • IPA(key): /zʌ̌p/ (after a sonorant and before a consonant)
  • IPA(key): /sʌ̀.β◌́~s͈ʌ̀.w◌́/ (after /-k, -p, -s, -h/ and before a vowel)
  • IPA(key): /sʌ̌p/ (after /-k, -p, -s, -h/ and before a consonant)
  • IPA(key): /t͡sʌ̀.β◌́~t͡sʌ̀.w◌́/ (after /-t/ and before a vowel)
  • IPA(key): /t͡sʌ̌p/ (after /-t/ and before a consonant)

SuffixEdit

ᅀᆞᇦ (-zoW-)

  1. A verbal suffix honoring the object (either direct or indirect) of the verb.

Usage notesEdit

  • Contrast with 으시〮 (-usí-), in which the speaker honors the subject, and 으〮ᅌᅵ (-úngì-), in which the speaker honors the addressee.

DescendantsEdit

See alsoEdit

Middle Korean verbal paradigm
Verb stem Slot 1
Object honorific
Slot 2
Past-related TAM
Slot 3
Subject honorific
Slot 4
Present tense
ᅀᆞᇦ〯 (-zǒW-) 더〮 (-té-, imperfective)
아〮/어〮 (-á/é-, perfective)
(-ke-, perfective)
으시〮/ᄋᆞ시〮 (-usí/osí-) ᄂᆞ (-no-)
Slot 5
Modulator
Slot 6
Prospective/Future
Slot 7
Emotive/Exclamatory1
(Slot 8)
(Imperfective)2
오〮/우〮 (-wó/wú-) 으〮리〮/ᄋᆞ〮리〮 (-úlí/ólí-) 도〮 (-twó-)
돗〮 (-twós-)
others
더〮 (-té-)
(Slot 9)
(Modulator)3
Slot 10
Definitive
Slot 11
Addressee honorific
Slot 12
Verb-final suffix
오〮/우〮 (-wó/wú-) 으〮니〮/ᄋᆞ〮니〮 (-úní/óní-) 으〮ᅌᅵ/ᄋᆞ〮ᅌᅵ (-úngì/óngì-, very deferential)
(-ng-, deferential)
See Template:okm-sentence enders for sentence-final ones
Examples
기르ᅀᆞᄫᆞ〮시니〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (kìlù-zòWó-sì[sí]-ní-ngì-tá, [the honored one] [indeed] brought up [the honored thing], [o honored one]., 月印釋譜 10:19)
주그리로〮소〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (cwùk-ùlì[úlí]-lwós[twós]-wó-ngì-tá, [I] shall die, [o honored one]!, 月印釋譜 21:22)
Notes
1 Many additional emotive suffixes, which have not been listed here, are fusional compounds that etymologically incorporate non-emotive morphemes. For example, 닷〮 (-tás-), which is used when the speaker has made a realization about some past state, comes from a merger of the imperfective 더〮 (-té-) and the emotive morpheme (-s-).

It is more appropriate to consider such suffixes as single-unit morphemes that belong to the slot for emotive suffixes, even if they also convey other information. They cause issues in the paradigmal order if they are broken down into their etymological constituents. And while the retrospective and confirmative suffixes share a slot and are hence mutually exclusive, 닷〮 (-tás-) has been attested as co-occurring with the latter.

2 In the fifteenth century, only after Slot 7 is filled by the emotive suffix 돗〮 (-twós-), forming the sequence 돗〮더〮 (-twós-té-), used to emotively convey a realization made in the past.

In the sixteenth century, also appears after prospective 으〮리〮/ᄋᆞ〮리〮 (-úlí/olí-), forming the sequence 으〮리〮러〮/ᄋᆞ〮리〮러〮 (-úlí-lé/ólí-lé), used to convey a past state when something was about to happen.

3 Taken when Slot 7 (emotive) is filled.
Certain suffixes are mutually exclusive.

ReferencesEdit

  • 김현주 (Kim Hyeon-ju) (2014), “선어말어미 {ᄉᆞᆸ}의 연구 성과와 쟁점 [Findings and key topics in the study of the verb-internal suffix -sop-]”, in Gugeosa yeon'gu, volume 19, pages 65—99