NavajoEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Athabaskan *qa̓tʼ (to spread out, fall scattered, collapse, slap, clap).

Found in Navajo in a wide range of themes related to the moving or spreading of "flatness", including classificatory root for the moving / falling or propelling of objects of the PlO2 (profusion) or OC (open container) classes, the herding of sheep over a surface, or the slapping of hands.

RootEdit

-KAAD

 1. PlO2 (as seeds) or OC (as a bucket and its content) falls, spills, scatters

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
motion

PlO2 / OC falls

S tosses PlO2 / OC

 2. to herd sheep, to drive sheep

Theme Category Bases Unspecified (+ʼa)
O + ni + ł motion

S herds O (sheep)

 3. to slap, to clap hands

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
dzi/O + ∅ successive

S slaps, beats (O)

Motion (with dzi-) :

Successive (with O):

ahókaad

 4. flatness moves (other minor themes)

Theme Category Bases Transitive bases (O + ł)
ni + ∅ motion

S collapses or sways

S topples O

successive

S plays cards, gambles

S becomes chipped

S chips O

di + ∅ adjectival S is flat, thin
positional

S lies, spreads (as shrubs)

S keeps O in position

hi / di
+ yíní + ∅
positional

S hangs, extends (as blanket, layer)

Stem setEdit

Aspect IMP PERF FUT ITER OPT
MOM -kaad -kaad -kał -kaʼ -kaad
CONT -kaad -kaad -kał -kaʼ -kaad
REP -kaʼ -kaad -kał -kaʼ -kaʼ
REP -kad -kaad -kał -kaʼ -kad
SEM / CONCL -kad -kad -kał -kaʼ -kad
NEUT -kad -kaad - - -

See also Appendix: Roots and stems derivation.

SynonymsEdit

PlO2 verbs:

OC verbs:

FFO verbs:

 

to sway:

to collapse:

to hit, to beat:

Derived termsEdit

Navajo terms belonging to the root -KAAD (flat moves)